Truth About Subliminal Programs
Choices and Illusions
Peripheral Desk Reference - G
Gable, M., Wilkens, H.T., Harris, L. & Feinberg, R. (1987). An evaluation of subliminally embedded sexual stimuli in graphics. Journal of Advertising, 16 (1), pp 26-31.
This studied evaluated the effects of sexual embeds in advertising. The researchers concluded that subliminally embedding sexual material in advertising did not influence consumer preference.
Gabriecik, A., Fazio, R.H. (1984). Priming and frequency estimation: A strict test of the availability heuristic. Indiana University, Bloomington. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 10 (1), pp 85-89. ISSN: 0146-1672.
Adele Gabriecik & Russell Fazio studied the mediating process by manipulating availability directly using a subliminal priming procedure.
In Experiment 1, the subjects participated in a recognition experiment
that showed that the word presentation was indeed subliminal.
Gade, P.A., & Gertman, D. (1979). Listening to compressed speech: The effects of instructions, experience and preference. Technical Paper 369, Education Technology and Simulation Technical Area, Alexandria, VA; U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Paul Gade and David Gertman attempted to assess the effects of different
information seeking strategies on the rate at which individuals chose
to listen to passages of time-compressed speech, and on their comprehension
of those passages.
Gadlin, W. & Fiss, H. (1967). Odor as a facilitator of the effects of subliminal stimulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7 (1), pp 95-100. ISSN: 0022-3514.
Gaethke-Brandt, J.E. (1986). The effect of auditory subliminal
deactivating messages on motor and task performance of hyperkinetic children.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (4-A), p. 1184.
Patricia Galbraith and Brad Barton carried out this study in order to
ascertain whether subliminals are effective as relaxation tools, and if
they are, how lasting is the effect.
Jeffrey Galland examined the effects of experimental drive arousal on response to subliminal stimulation.
Ganovski, L. (1977). The role of peripheral perceptions in solving mental tasks. Ministry of Public Education, Suggestology Research Institute, Sofia Bulgaria. Activatas Nervosa Superior, 19 (4), pp 280-281. ISSN: 0001-7604.
Ganovski examined the role of peripheral perceptions in solving mental
Geisler, C.J. (1983). A new experimental method for the study of the psychoanalytic concept of repression. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (11-B), p. 3757. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Geisler, C.J. (1986). The use of subliminal psychodynamic activation in the study of repression. New York University, School of Social Work. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (4), pp 884-851. ISSN: 0022-3514.
Carol Geisler used subliminal psychodynamic activation in the study
of the clinical phenomenon of repression.
The subliminal psychodynamic activation method was used with both groups to evaluate effects on repression of intensifying and diminishing unconscious conflict over sexual wishes.
The subjects were exposed to verbal stimuli, which were;
Genkina, O.A. & Shostakovich, G.S. (1983). Elaboration of a conditioned reflex in chronic alcoholics using an unrecognizable motivationally significant word. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat., 33 (6), pp 1010-1018.
Genkino, O.A. & Shostakovich, G.S. (1986). Conditioning of patients with chronic alcoholism by means of a subthreshold motivationally significant word. Soviet Neurology & Psychiatry, Sum. vol. 19 (2), pp 87-100.
Researchers demonstrated that the subthreshold presentation of the word "Vodka" to alcoholics resulted in an increased P300 wave change, as compared to the subthreshold presentation of a neutral word.
Genkino, O.A. & Shostakovich, G.S. (1987). Cortical evoked activity in the process of elaborating a conditioned connection using an unrecognizable word. Fiziol. Cheloveka., 13 (3), pp 369-378.
George, S.G. & Jennings, L.B. (1972). Re-examination of effect of a subliminal verbal food stimulus on subjective hunger ratings. Psychological Reports, 30 (2), pp 521-522. ISSN: 0033 2941.
Stephen George and Luther Jennings examined the effects of subliminal
verbal food stimulus.
Gheorghiu, V. & Kruse, P. (1990). The psychology of suggestion: and integrative perspective. In Human Suggestibility by J.F. Schunaku. Routledge.
Vladimir Gheorghiu and Peter Kruse discuss integrative approaches to
modern psychology through the research of suggestive influences.
Correlations between suggestion/suggestibility and stability are made.
Giddan, N.S. (1967). Recovery through images of briefly flashed stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35 (1), pp 1-19. ISSN: 0022-3506.
Giovacchini, P.L. (1984). The quest for dependent autonomy. University of Illinois College of Medicine. International Forum for Psychoanalysis, 1 (2), pp 153-166. ISSN: 0738-8217.
Peter Giovacchini examined the scientific testing of hypotheses in psychoanalytic
Glennon, S.S. (1984). The effect of functional brain asymmetry and hemisphericity on the subliminal activation of residual oedipal conflicts. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (12-b), pp 3931-3932. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Subjects were tachistopically exposed to oedipal conflicts arousing
and conflict-alleviating messages and congruent pictures.
Glover, E.D. (1977). The influence of subliminal perception on smoking behavior. Texas Woman's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38 (9-A), p. 5265.
Elbert Glover attempted to find out whether subliminal perception could
be used as a means for altering cigarette smoking behavior.
Glover, E.D. (1979). Decreasing smoking behavior through subliminal stimulation treatments. Journal of Drug Education, 9 (3), pp 273-283.
Goldiamond, I. (1958). Indicators of perception: I. Subliminal perception, subception, unconscious perception: An analysis in terms of psychophysical indicator methodology. Psychological Bulletin, 55, pp 373-411.
Goldstein, M.J. & Barhol, R.P. Fantasy response to subliminal stimuli. Journal of Social and Abnormal Psychology, pp 22-26.
Goldstein, M.J. & Davis, D. (1961). The impact of stimuli registering outside of awareness upon personal preferences. Journal of Personality, 29.
Goldstone, G., Goldfarb, J., Strong, J. & Russell, J. (1962). Replication: the effect of subliminal shock upon the judged intensity of weak shock. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 14, p. 222.
Golland, J.H. (1967). The effects of experimental drive arousal on response to subliminal stimulation. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts, 27 (11-B), p. 4123.
Jeffrey Golland examined the effects of aggressive subliminal stimulation.
Goncalves, O.F. & Ivey, A.E. (1987). The effects of unconscious presentation of information on therapist conceptualizations, intentions and responses. University of Porto, Faculty of Psychology, Portugal. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43 (2), pp 237-245. ISSN: 0021-9762.
Oscar Goncalves and Allen Ivey studied the effects of tachistoscopic
presentation of affective words on subjects' conceptualizations, intentions,
and responses to a simulated client.
It was found that the subliminal presentation of positive emotional concepts on subjects' conceptualizations, intentions, and responses had a significant effect.
Gonzalez, J.L. (1985). Subliminal stimulation and psychopathologic diagnosis. Psiquis, 6 (1), pp 30+.
Gonzalez, J. L., E. Paolini, et al. (1989). "The unconscious in psychology and psychoanalysis." Psiquis 10(2): 15-25.
This paper discusses the empirical evidence that supports the hypothesis that subliminal stimuli may have an effect on behavior.
Carol Gordon and Donald Spence tested whether the sensitivity to a subliminal
stimulus could be increased by arousing a congruent cognitive set in food-deprived
Gordon G. (1967). Semantic determination by subliminal verbal stimuli: A quantitative approach, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of London.
Gordon used a semantic differential to measure the degree of subliminal
Gordon, W.K. (1983). Combination of cognitive group therapy and subliminal stimulation in treatment of text-anxious college males. North Texas State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (11-B), p. 3731. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Grant, R.H. (1980). The effects of subliminally projected visual stimuli on skill development, selected attention, and participation in racquetball by college students. East Texas State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (2-A), p, 585.
Roger Grant carried out this study in order to investigate the effects
of subliminally presented visual stimuli on;
Greenberg, R.P. & Fisher, S. (1980). Freud's penis-baby equation: Exploratory tests of a controversial theory. State University of New York, Upstate Medical Center. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 53 (4), pp 333-342. ISSN: 0007-1129.
Roger Greenberg and Seymour Fisher studied Freud's idea that pregnancy
has phallic significance for women.
Greenberg, A. C. (1990). Response to subliminally activated fantasies of symbiotic-like oneness: A function of gender or psychological differentiation?, Long Island U Brooklyn Ctr, NY, US.
Greenberg, A. C. (1990). "Response to subliminally activated fantasies of symbiotic-like oneness: A function of gender or psychological differentiation?" Perceptual & Motor Skills 71(3, Pt 2): 1179-1187.
Results of this study show that subjects highly differentiated from their mothers responded adaptively to the symbiotic message "Mommy and I are One," developed by Silverman. However, the data did not reach statistical significance.
This study employed the presentation of the "momy and I are One" message via tachistoscope presentation to measure the effect on annihilation anxiety, state anxiety and psychological differentiation. Results showed a significantly lower anxiety in female subjects but a negative correlation in male subjects between annihilation anxiety and psychological differentiation.
Greenwald, A. G., E. R. Spangenberg, et al. (1991). "Double-blind tests of subliminal self-help audiotapes." Psychological Science 2(2): 119-122.
This study employed commercially available subliminal self-help (SSH)
audiotapes to measure the expectation factor and labels. The researchers
obtained commercial tapes from five companies in the domains of self esteem
and memory. They switched the labels on the tapes and measured outcome
statistically and from self reports. General findings suggest that the
influence of the label played a role in expectation and reported effect
(self appraisal) but statistical data failed to support the self appraisal
Groeger carried out a study to determine whether subjects extract information
from words presented below their recognition and awareness thresholds.
Groeger, J.A. (1986). Predominant and non-predominant analysis: Effects of level of presentation. MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge, England. British Journal of Psychology, 77 (1), pp 109-116. ISSN: 007-1269.
In a previous study, Groeger found that stimuli outside awareness receive
a predominantly semantic analysis, whereas unrecognized stimuli are processed
in a predominantly structural fashion.
Groeger, J. A. (1986). "Preconscious influences on word substitutions." Irish Journal of Psychology 7(2): 88-97.
Subthreshold effects were shown in this study that evaluate priming at subawareness and subrecognition levels.
Gruber, R.P. (1970). Learning without verbalization of awareness. Psychology, 7 (1), pp 2-8. Biomedical Department, Edgewood Arsenal, MD.
Ronald Gruber discusses learning without verbalization.
Grzegolowska-Klarkowska, H. (1981). Perceptual defense -- mechanics, correlates, synthesis: II. Przeglad Psychologiczny, 24 (2), pp 299-318. ISSN: 004-85675.
Helena Grzegolowska-Klarkowska discusses perceptual defense .
Gustafson, R. and H. Kallmen (1990). "Subliminal stimulation and cognitive and motor performance." Perceptual & Motor Skills 71(1): 87-96.
This study presented the symbiotic Mommy message to 60 adults before testing motor performance. The results showed a significant improvement in motor performance, but not evenly for all subjects.
Gustafson, R. and H. Kallmen (1990). "Reply to Fudin's comments on Gustafson and Kallmen's experiment on subliminal psychodynamic activation." Perceptual & Motor Skills 71(3, Pt 1): 1029-1030.
Fudin's recommendation to control for confounding and irrelevant influences was applied in two experiments with the "Mommy" symbiotic. Results showed significant improvement in motor performance but only with the full symbiotic message.
Guthrie, C. & Weiner, M. (1966). Subliminal perception or perception of partial cues with pictorial stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3 (6), pp 619-628. ISSN: 0022-3514.
Guttman, G., Ganglberger, J. (1967). Conditioned verbal reactions triggered by subliminal thalamic stimulation. University of Vienna, Psychologisches Inst., Austria. Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie, 14 (3), pp 542-544. ISSN: 0044-2712, Language: GERMAN.
Giselher Guttman and Josef Ganglberger examined the ability of thalamic
stimulations to evoke verbal CRS.
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