Peripheral Desk Reference - E
Eagle, M. (1959). The effects of subliminal stimuli of aggressive
content upon conscious cognition. Journal of Personality, 27,
Eagle, M. (1962). Personality correlates of sensitivity to subliminal
stimulation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 134 (1).
Efran, J.S. & Marcia, J.E. (1967). Treatment of fears by expectancy
manipulation: An exploratory investigation. Proceedings of the 75th
annual convention of the American Psychological Association, 2, pp
Efran and Marcia devised a treatment for snake and spider phobics.
This treatment is similar to systematic desensitization except that it
does not use the pairing of relaxation and anxiety hierarchy images.
The treatment consisted of looking into a blank tachistoscope. Occasional
shocks were administered and the subjects were told that this was an automatic
reactions to the "subliminal" phobic stimuli which were being extinguished.
The test was administered to two groups of subjects under high and low
The results indicated that this treatment had it's greatest effect under
Ellis, H.D. (1972). Adaptation-level theory and context effects
on sensory judgments: perception for response? Perception, 1
(1), pp 101-109. ISSN: 0301-0066.
Findings of covert recognition are compared with subliminal stimuli.
Emas, S. W. (1989). Effects of subliminal psychodynamic activation
messages upon state anxiety of males and females, U Missouri, Kansas
Emmelkamp, P.M. & Straatman, H. (1976). A psychoanalytic
reinterpretation of the effectiveness of systematic desensitization: Fact
or fiction? Behavior Research & Therapy, 14 (3), pp 245-249.
The aim of this study was to replicate and extend the work of L.H. Silverman.
Silverman stated that the effectiveness of systematic desensitization
(SD) resides in its activation of unconscious merging fantasies.
In Silverman's experiments, a procedure aimed at stimulating a fantasy
of "merging with mother" was substituted for muscle relaxation.
The subjects underwent tachistoscopic subliminal exposure of the symbiotic
gratification stimulus "Mommy and I are one" (experimental) or the neutral
stimulus "people are walking" (control).
Emmelkamp and Straatman replicated this study with special reference to
Snake-phobic subjects were used.
It was found that the systematic desensitization with a symbiotic gratification
stimulus was not more effective than systematic desensitization with a
This may be explained by the fact that the neutral stimulus in the present
study "snake and I are one" was more relevant than the neutral stimulus
in the Silverman et al study.
In addition, it was found that the subjects with a therapy-set improved
significantly more than subjects with a research-set.
Emrich, H. & Heineman, L.G. (1966). EEG in subliminal perception
of emotionally important words. Psychology Forsch, 29 (4), pp 285-296.
ISSN: 0033-3026, Language: GERMAN.
Emrich and Heineman used an EEG as measurement of the effects of the
subliminal presentation of emotionally important words.
Erdelyi, M.H. (1972). Role of fantasy in the Poetzl (emergence)
phenomenon. Douglass College, Rutgers State University. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 24 (2), pp 186-190.
Matthew Erdelyi compared the relative effectiveness of doodles and pictorial
guesses in recovering initially unreported elements of a brief stimulus.
Subjects were randomly assigned to fantasy, guessing or yoked groups.
The fantasy and guessing subjects saw a brief (500 msec.) composite stimulus
which they then attempted to recall.
The fantasy subjects subsequently generated 20 unrepeating pictorial fantasies,
while the guessing subjects produced 20 "shrewd guesses" of the unrecalled
The yoked group never saw the stimulus, instead each subject saw and copied
the free recall drawings of a fantasy subject and then generated 20 guesses
of the unrecalled elements.
The guessing subjects recovered significantly more stimulus items in their
20 responses than the fantasy subjects, while the yoked subjects responses
were significantly less accurate than their fantasy counterparts. Fantasy
in the confirmed Poetzl phenomenon was interpreted as functioning much
like subcriterion responses emitted in forced-recall guessing.
Erdelyi, M.H. (1974). A new look at the new look: Perceptual defense
and vigilance. Psychological Review, 81 (1), pp 1-25.
Erdelyi, M.H. (1985). Psychoanalysis: Freud's Cognitive Psychology.
W.H. Freeman and Company. New York.
In this book, Erdelyi discusses experiments in which subjects recalled
the contents of subliminally induced messages through free association
Erdley, C. A. and P. R. D'Agostino (1988). "Cognitive and affective
components of automatic priming effects." Journal of Personality &
Social Psychology 54(5): 741-747.
The authors of this study suggest that their fails to show a general
affective response to priming effects.
Erikson, C.W. (1958). Unconscious processes. In M.R. Jones (Ed.)
Nebraska Symposia on Motivation. University of Nebraska Press,
Erikson, C.W. & Johnson, H.J. (1964). Storage and decay characteristics
of nonattended auditory stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology,
68 (1), pp 28-36.