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Peripheral Desk Reference - F
Faenze, V. (1966) Conditions of equivocity of the response in
relation to the problem of "subliminal" perception. Archivio Di Psicologia,
Neurologia E Psichiatria, 27 (4-5), pp 443 445. ISSN: 0004-0150, Language:
Under masking noise, subliminal language perception may be influenced
by uncontrolled fluctuations.
Farne, M. (1965) Degree of discernability of the stimulus and
perceptive behavior. Archivio Di Psicologia, Neurologia E Psichiatria,
26 (6), pp 566-567. ISSN: 0004-0150, Language: ITALIAN
Farne examined the degree of discernability of subliminal stimuli.
Farrar, J. E. (1989). The effects of subliminal visual stimuli
and supraliminal simple sound on the affective states and involvement
in treatment of chronic alcoholics, New York U, US.
Feldman, J.B. (1979). The utilization of the subliminal psychodynamic
activation method in the further examination of conscious and unconscious
measures of death anxiety. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39
(11-B), pp 5547-5548.
A method to experimentally induce death anxiety was devised to test
the validity of four indirect measures of unconscious death anxiety.
The technique chosen was a variation of the subliminal psychodynamic activation
method as devised by Silverman (Silverman, 1976).
Using a series of three pictorial and verbal stimuli, individuals could
detect a flash of light, but could neither discern content or discriminate
between a death related and neutral series of stimuli at 3 msec. duration
Further studies using 3 msec. and 4 msec. duration indicated that the
subliminal stimulation was effective in inducing death anxiety.
In this study, subjects received four series of three subliminal stimuli
prior to the word recognition, word-association and association-recall
Subjects also completed a death anxiety questionnaire.
This study supported the findings of this author's previous study in terms
of subjects' differential responsivity to death, neutral and sex-related
words on a word-recognition, word association and association recall task.
Field, G.A. (1974). The unconscious organization. University
of Windsor, Canada. Psychoanalytic Review, 61 (3), pp 333-354.
George Field discusses how, within an organization, there is an unconscious,
where ideas and feelings unacceptable to the organizational superego or
ego are actively repressed below the level of the organizational preconscious.
The organizational unconscious exerts a subliminal influence on organizational
policies and actions.
Figueroa, M. D. (1989). "Comments on the subliminal psychodynamic
activation method." American Psychologist 44(11): 1421-1422.
This article essentially sets forth the authors doubt of the psychodynamic
activation method of Silverman's while lending confirmation to the idea
that subliminal stimuli is processed differently than direct conscious
Firestone, R.W. (1986). The "inner voice" and suicide. Psychotherapy,
23 (3), pp 439-447. ISSN: 0033-3204.
Although there is a lack of clear behavioral indications of potential
suicide victims, there is clinical evidence that the majority of these
people are tortured by a subliminal voice or thought process.
This subliminal voice is degrading and derisive to the self and normally
accompanies feelings of depression and lowered self-esteem.
Under certain conditions, this system of hostile thoughts becomes progressively
ascendant until it finally takes precedence over thought processes of
Firestone suggests that, by using laboratory procedures, these thoughts
can be formulated and brought directly into consciousness when they are
put in terms of a "voice."
The dynamics and probable sources of the voice are analyzed and the relationship
between this destructive thought process and actual suicidal behavior
Fisher, C. (1954). Dreams and perception. Journal of the American
Psychoanalysis Association, 2, pp 389-445.
Fisher, C. (1956). Dreams, images and perception: A study of
unconscious-preconscious relationships. Journal Of The American Psychoanalytical
Association, 4, pp 5-48.
Fisher, C. (1960). Subliminal and supraliminal influence on dreams. American
Journal Of Psychiatry, 116.
Fisher, S. (1975). Effects of messages reported to be out of awareness
upon the body boundary. State University New York, Upstate Medical Center,
Syracuse. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 161 (2), pp 90-99.
In a series of eight studies, it was found that out-of-awareness taped
messages produced boundary decrement, as measured by the Barrier score
(derived from the Holtzman Inkblot Test) in men.
The messages included hostility, depression, body, vulnerability and reassurance
All themes, when properly primed, resulted in boundary decline in men.
Nonprimed and control conditions did not effect the boundary.
In contrast, no significant boundary changes were produced by the primed
out-of-awareness themes in women.
It is proposed that men are more disturbed than women by feelings that
material has gained entrance to them in a fashion which they cannot control.
Fisher, S. (1976). Conditions affecting boundary response to
messages out of awareness. State University of New York, Upstate Medical
Center, Syracuse. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 162 (5),
pp 313-322. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Seymour Fisher examined multiple studies which evaluated the role of
various following parameters in mediating the effects of auditory subliminal
inputs upon the body boundary.
The following questions were asked;
In a series of six studies, a test-retest design was typically employed
that involved measuring the baseline Barrier score with the Holtzman blots
and then ascertaining the Barrier change when responding to a second series
of Holtzman blots at the same tome that subliminal input was occurring.
1) What is the effect of the subliminal stimulus upon the boundary
if the individual is made aware that he is exposed to a subliminal
2) How specific must the priming process preceding a subliminal
input be in order to potentiate its boundary effects?
3) How is the subliminal registration process altered by introducing
a competing stimulus input?
4) Can the apparent stability of the woman's boundary in relation
to subliminal input be decreased by introducing an input theme that
might be considered particularly threatening to a woman?
5) What is the effect upon response to subliminal input of greatly
increasing the amount of exposure to the input?
6) Can individual differences in response to subliminal input be
predicted in terms of two variables;
a) degree of tolerance for unrealistic experiences, and
b) degree of masculinity-femininity?
Complex results emerged that defined in considerably new detail what facilitates
and blocks the boundary-disrupting effects of subliminal messages in men
and to a lesser degree in women.
It was found that;
These findings show that subtle perceptual inputs that do not register in
awareness may have a boundary impact.
a) an individual's awareness that he is being exposed to subliminal
input does not effect the degree of boundary impact of that input,
b) subliminal input can be modified by the context in which it
c) subliminal effects depend upon the conditions of the subliminal
d) the increased duration of subliminal input produced an increase
in boundary effect in females,
e) the increased duration of subliminal input produced a decrease
in boundary effect in males,
f) priming does not need to be obviously and directly related to
the subliminal message in order to potentiate it.
Fisher, C. (1988). Further observations on the Poetzl phenomenon:
the effects of subliminal visual stimulation on dreams, images and hallucinations.
Psychoanalysis & Contemporary Thought, 2 (1), pp 3-56.
Findings suggest that subliminal information is utilized in hallucinations,
dream imagery and creative processes such as those particularly discussed
regarding P. Picasso.
Fisher, C.B., Glewick, D.S. & Blumenthal, R.S. (1986). Subliminal
oedipal stimuli and competitive performance: An investigation of between-groups
effects and mediating subject variables. Fordham University Bronx. Journal
of Abnormal Psychology, 95 (3), pp 292-294. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Celia Fisher, David Glenwick and Rena Blumenthal assessed the effects
of subliminal presentation of oedipal messages on the competitive performance
of college males.
An additional investigation employing a between-groups design, in which
Subjects received repeated presentations of 1 of 3 messages, was conducted.
The subjects completed the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
The results indicated significant differences between performance following
both oedipally related stimuli and the control stimulus for the replication
There was no significant stimulus effects observed in the between-groups
investigation, and no significant correlations between anxiety and dart-throwing
performance were obtained.
Fisher, C. & Paul, I.H. (1959). The effects of subliminal
visual stimulation on imagery and dreams. A validation study. Journal
Of American Psychoanalytical Association, 7.
Fisher and Paul show that subliminal messages actually register within
the unconscious without the subject being aware of it.
It was found that the recovery of subliminal stimuli in subsequent imagery
is maximized by making the subject adopt a supine position in the dark.
Fisher, C. (1988). Subliminal (preconcious) perception: The microgenesis
of unconscious fantasy. Fantasy, myth, and reality: Essays in honor of
Jacob A. Arlow, M.D. Y. K. Harold P. Blum, Arlene Kramer Richards, Arnold
D. Richards,, International Universities Press, Inc, Madison, CT, US:
(from the chapter) suggestion that unconscious fantasy pervades mental
life, both waking and sleeping /// this work indicates that the dream
process begins during the day, as the unconscious wish and the fantasies
associated with it transfer their intensity onto the day residue /// it
is suggested further that the dream work continues throughout the day,
as further day residues are drawn into the dream process /// a combined
Fiss, H. (1966a). Physiognomic effects of subliminal stimulation.
Perceptual and Motor skills, 22, pp 265-366. New York University.
Fiss, H. (1966b). The effects of experimentally induced changes
in alertness on response to subliminal stimulation. Journal of Personality,
34 (4), pp 577-595. New York University. ISSN: 0022-3506.
Fiss examined the effects of experimentally induced changes in alertness
on response to subliminal stimulation.
Fiss, H., Goldberg, F. & Klein G.S. (1963). Effects of subliminal
stimulation on imagery and discrimination. Perceptual and Motor Skills,
17, pp 31-44.
Fiss, Goldberg and Klein examined the effects of subliminal stimulation
on imagery and discrimination.
Fiss, H. (1993). The "royal road" to the unconscious revisited:
A signal detection model of dream function. The functions of dreaming.
SUNY series in dream studies. M. K. Alan Moffitt, Robert Hoffmann,,
State University of New York Press, Albany, NY, US: 381-418.
(from the chapter) review the empirical foundation underlying this formulation
of dream function (that dreams are the "royal road" to a cognitive unconscious
of information processing and psychic structure building) / point out
how this formulation fits the framework of signal detection theory and
sketch the outlines of a unified signal detection model in terms of which
the effects of subliminal stimuli administered in the waking state (subliminal
activation) are understood to be analogous to the effects of what normally
would be considered to be supraliminal stimuli applied during sleep (sleep
stimulation) / (consider) the implications of this model for further experimental
research, clinical practice, and theory.
Florek, W.G. (1985). An investigation of the effects of stimulation
symbiotic fantasies in primipara females. St. John's University. Dissertation
Abstracts International, 46 (5-B), p. 1720. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Walter Florek investigated the effects of symbiotic subliminal messages
on the adaptation, anxiety and attitudes of primipara females towards
Florek, R. (1982). The effects of subliminal tachistoscopic presentation
of drive-related stimuli on the cognitive functioning of paranoid and
nonparanoid schizophrenics. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42
(10-B), pp 4190-4191. ISSN: 04104209.
Foodman, A. (1976). Hemispheric asymmetrical brain wave indicators
of unconscious mental processes. Meninger Foundation, Topeka, KS. Journal
of Operational Psychiatry, 7 (1), pp 3 15.
In this study, Allen Foodman explored the relationship between AER discrimination
for subliminally presented stimuli and cerebral hemispheric functional
Three questions were posed to investigate the hypothesis:
The findings largely supported an affirmative answer to all these questions
and thus demonstrated cerebral hemispheric asymmetry of unconscious mental
1) Would AER laterality differences appear for picture, one of
which is readily identified verbally and the other not?
2) Would AER laterality effects appear for subliminal as well as
3) Would correlations be found between associations to the meaningful
picture and the dominant side AERs?
A model was suggested to account for the findings.
Foster, R.P. (1982). The effects of subliminal tachistoscopic
presentation of drive-related stimuli on the cognitive functioning of
paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenics. St. John's University Dissertation
Abstracts International, 42 (10-B), pp 4190-4191. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Foulke, E. & Sticht, I.G. (1969). Review of research on the
intelligibility and comprehension of accelerated speech. Psychological
Bulletin, 72 (1), 50.
Fox, M. (1966). Differential effects of subliminal and supraliminal
stimulation. Dissertation Abstracts, 27 (4-B), pp 1289-1290.
Major hypotheses tested were that subliminal stimuli can be effective
in the absence of partial conscious cues and that subliminal and supraliminal
stimuli produce differential effects.
Subjects viewed Happy and Angry (type A) figures subliminally and supraliminally,
and a neutral line drawing of a face (type B) presented supraliminally.
The presentations differed in that both the words and the face were visible
in the supraliminal condition, whereas only the face was visible in the
Changes in the subjects' descriptions of the face and the reaction times
served as indices for the word's effects.
Responses were more pleasant when the face was paired (subliminally) with
Happy rather than Angry. This indicates that the subjects' conscious processes
were influenced by words of which they were unaware.
Sensitivity to subliminal stimuli was enhanced when the subjects suspended
efforts at objectivity and passively gave themselves over to feelings
and fantasies about the face they were describing.
Reaction time was no different between the subliminal and supraliminal
conditions, nor was there any difference between the words within the
Distinctive effects were produced with subliminal and supraliminal stimulation.
When the subjects made the visible words relevant to the task of describing
the face, the words appeared more frequently in the descriptions from
the supraliminal condition than with the subliminal condition. When the
supraliminal figures were made irrelevant to the task, there was no significant
difference in the number of reports of the words in the subliminal and
supraliminal conditions. More direct expressions of the affect appeared
in the subliminal than in the supraliminal condition.
Frauman, D.C. (1985). Effect of subliminal symbiotic activation
on hypnotic rapport and susceptibility. Ohio University. Dissertation
Abstracts International, 45, (9-B), p. 3068. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Frauman, D.C., Lynn, S.J., Hardaway, R. & Molteni, A. (1984).
Effect of subliminal symbiotic activation on hypnotic rapport and susceptibility.
St. Vincent Stress Center, Indianapolis, IN. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,
93 (4), pp 481-483. ISSN: 0021-843X.
David Frauman, Steven Lynn, Richard Hardaway and Andrew Molteni studied
2 groups of subjects matched for susceptibility (high, medium, low) as
measured by the Stanford Hypnotic susceptibility scale -- Form A.
The experimental Subjects received symbiotic ("Mommy and I are one") subliminal
stimulation via tachistoscope in a double-blind design. The comparison
group received a psychodynamically neutral stimulus. ("People are walking").
Following subliminal stimulation, subjects were hypnotized individually.
Projective tasks that indexed rapport with the hypnotist and the mother
were administered during hypnosis. Rapport was also measured by rated
intimacy of self-disclosure topics and by valence of topics selected to
disclose to the hypnotics.
MANOVA showed that symbiotic fantasies had an impact on measures assumed
to be relevant to affective, relationship factors in hypnosis.
Subjects in the "Mommy" group selected more positively valanced topics
to disclose to the hypnotist. However, no interaction between hypnotic
susceptibility level and symbiotic activation was found, suggesting that
susceptibility does not mediate the rapport.
Fribourg, A. (1981, June). The effect of fantasies of merging
with a good mother on schizophrenic pathology. The Journal of Nervous
and Mental Disease, 169 (6), pp 337-347. ISSN: 0022-3018.
This study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of the
subliminal symbiotic stimulation alone and in conjunction with an enhancement
procedure on the pathology of relatively differentiated and relatively
It was hypothesized that enhancing the positive attributes of the schizophrenic's
image of his mother prior to stimulating a fantasy of a symbiotic merger
might increase his ability to benefit from the subliminal symbiotic stimulus.
The results did not support this hypothesis.
Differentiated schizophrenics who received both enhancement procedure
and the subliminal symbiotic stimulus showed no pathology reduction, whereas
differentiated schizophrenics who received only the subliminal symbiotic
stimulus manifested significant reductions in both pathological thinking
and pathological behavior.
Undifferentiated schizophrenics showed no reduction in pathology after
the symbiotic stimulus regardless of whether or not they also received
the enhancement procedure.
The subliminal enhancement alone, ie. without the symbiotic stimulus,
resulted in reductions in pathological behavior for both differentiated
and undifferentiated schizophrenics.
It was concluded that although enhancing the positive attributes of the
schizophrenic's maternal representation did not increase his ability to
benefit from subliminal symbiotic stimulation, it did reduce pathology
in it's own right.
Friedman, S. (1976) Perceptual registration of the analyst outside
of awareness. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 45 (1), pp 128-130.
Stanley Friedman describes a dream analysis which he knew in advance
referred to his patient's perceptual registration of him outside of awareness
in an extra-analytic setting.
Frith, U. (1972). The Georgian School of psychology: Impressions
from a visit to Tbilisi. Medical Research Council Developmental Psychology
Unit, London, England. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society,
25 (88), pp 197-201.
Uta Frith describes and discusses the concept of "set" which is central
to the Georgian school of psychology. The original experiments leading
to set theory are described.
Ongoing research, not hitherto published in English is described: a study
of the cognitive structures of educationally subnormal children, an experiment
in subliminal perception and a series of studies in semantics.
Fritzler, D.E., Shevrin, H. & Smith, W.H. (1970). Subliminally
stimulated brain and verbal responses of twins differing in repressiveness.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 76, (1), pp 39 46. ISSN: 0021-843X.
By combining the average evoked response (AER) technique with subliminal
stimulation, it has been possible to investigate unconscious mental processes
in an objective and replicable way.
Previous work has shown that the AER can discriminate between two subliminal
stimuli (flashed at 1 msec.), while free associations have been found
to contain stimulus related words.
Repressiveness, as rated on the basis of Rorschach performance, appears
to be related to a diminution of evoked response amplitude and stimulus-related
In the current study, 12 pairs of twins were used as subjects.
Six pairs differed markedly in repressiveness; 6 pairs were similar in
Replicating previous results, it was found that the repressive twins had
smaller AER amplitudes than their nonrepressive siblings and associated
fewer stimulus-related words.
For supraliminal exposure (30 msec.), there was a tendency for amplitude
of ARE to be reversed as a function of repressiveness.
The findings are discussed with respect to attentional and defensive factors.
Froufe, T.M. & Sierra, D. B. (1985). Perception without awareness.
University Autonoma de Madrid, Spain. Boletin de Psicologia (Spain),
7, pp 7-50. Language: SPANISH.
This article provides a review of the literature concerning the relationship
between consciousness and perception and the issue of subliminal perception.
Methodological issues are discussed, as are selective attention, central
masking and binocular rivalry.
Conscious and unconscious perceptual processes are compared.
Froufe Torres, M. (1986). "Bias in the emission of judgments
induced by masked verbal elements: Decisions made in ignorance." Revista
de Psicologia General y Aplicada 41(4): 695 718.
This study presents implications for the use of subliminally masked
verbal messages to influence psychophysical judgements.
Frumkes, T.E., Sekuler, M.D., Barris, M.C., Reiss, E.H. & Chalupa,
L.M. (1973). Rod Cone interaction in human scotopic vision -- I. temporal
analysis. Queens College, City University of New York. Vision Research,
13 (7), pp 1269-1282.
Frumkes, Sekuler, Barris, Reiss and Chalupa studied the subliminal interactions
between spatially superimposed stimuli in dark-adapted human observers.
Rods and cones were selectively stimulated.
Contrary to prior research, rod-cone interaction was demonstrated and
rod signals were found to have a longer latency than cone signals.
Fudin, R. (1986). Subliminal psychodynamic activation: Mommy
and I are not yet one. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 63 (3), pp
Fudin, R. (1987). Subliminal psychodynamic activation: note on
illumination and the bleaching hypothesis. Perceptual & Motor Skill,
64 (3 - part 2), pp 1223-1230.
Fudin, R. (1987). Response to Weinberger's comments on "subliminal
psychodynamic activation: Mommy and I are not yet one". Perceptual
& Motor Skills, 64 (2), pp 639-642.
Fudin, R. and C. Benjamin (1991). "Review of auditory subliminal
psychodynamic activation experiments." Perceptual & Motor Skills
73(3, Pt 2): Spec Issue 1115-1136.
Examines the literature regarding auditory psychodynamic activation
(SPS) experiments and concludes that the data is inconclusive. However,
the authors also conclude that auditory SPA appears to have advantage
over visual SPA.
Fudin, R. and C. Benjamin (1992). "Subliminal psychodynamic activation:
Updated comprehensive list of experimental results and comments on previous
lists." Perceptual & Motor Skills 74(3, Pt 1): 959-977.
The authors present a comprehensive overview of the SPA literature and
conclude that the SPA theory is neither confirmed or negated by the experiments
Fudin, R. (1993). "Comments on Hudesman, Page and Rautiainen's
(1992) subliminal psychodynamic activation experiment." Perceptual
& Motor Skills 76(1): 41-42.
Fudin, R. (1993). "Comments on Hudesman and Page's reply to Fudin's
comments on Hudesman, Page and Rautianen's subliminal psychodynamic activation
experiment." Perceptual & Motor Skills 76(3, Pt 1): 856-858.
Fulford, P.F. (1980). The effect of subliminal merging stimuli on test anxiety.
Doctoral dissertation, St. John's University, New York. Dissertation
Abstracts International, 41 (4-B), p. 1503.
Paul Fulford examined the effect of subliminal merging stimuli on test
The question asked was "whether the subliminal stimulation of symbiotic
fantasies would decrease test anxiety states".
Results were measured by verbal recognition memory, psychomotor performance
(as measured by a test of reaction time), and state anxiety scores on
the State Trait Anxiety Inventory.
Group one received the experimental stimulus "Mommy and I are one".
Group two received the neutral stimulus "People are walking".
During each session, all subjects received pre- and post-treatment measures
of psychomotor performance, anxiety level and verbal recognition memory.
Subjects in the experimental group were found to exhibit an increased
level of verbal recognition memory.
The hypothesis that psychomotor activity, as measured by a test of reaction
time, would be affected by the experimental treatment was not supported.
These results are consistent with studies where no relation between physiological
measures and anxiety levels were found, using blood pressure and heart