Truth About Subliminal Programs
Choices and Illusions
Peripheral Desk Reference - W X Y & Z
Wagstaff, G.F. (1974). The effects of repression-sensitization of a brightness scaling measure of perceptual defence. University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, England. British Journal of Psychology, 65 (3), pp 395-401. ISSN: 0007-1269.
Graham Wagstaff investigated the relationship
between perceptual sensitivity and stimulus emotionality by employing
a methodology designed to preclude the intervention of response variables.
Walker, A. (1979). Music and the unconscious.
British Medical Journal, 2 (6205), pp 1641 1643. ISSN: 0007-1447.
Walker, P. (1975). The subliminal perception of movement and the "suppression" in binocular rivalry. British Journal of Psychology, 66 (3), pp 347-356.
In this article Peter Walker draws an analogy between
the perceptual limitation that characterize the dichotic listening paradigm
and the suppression that occurs in binocular rivalry when different stimuli
are presented to the two eyes.
In this study, the course of autokinesis is shown to
be sensitive to the real movement of a surrounding stimulus.
Walker, P. A. (1991). The effect of audio subliminal messages on the enhancement of self-esteem, U Oklahoma, US.
Walls, K. C., J. A. Taylor, et al. (1992). "The effects of subliminal suggestions and music experience on the perception of tempo in music." Journal of Music Therapy 29(3): 186-197.
Embedded subliminal spoken messages in music to determine if subliminal spoken messages would have an effect of the perception of tempo. No such effect was found.
Watson, G.B. (1970). Motor response latency as an indicator of subliminal affective stimulation. Journal of General Psychology, 82 (2nd Half), pp 139-143. ISSN: 0022-1309.
Watson, J.P. (1975). An experimental method for the study of unconscious conflict. Guy's Hospital Medical School, London, England. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 48 (4), pp 299-301. ISSN: 0007-1129.
In this report, Watson evaluates the experimental studies
reported by L.H. Silverman, in which the results of exposing subjects
to contrasting types of tachistoscopic stimulation are held to support
various hypotheses concerning psychopathology derived from psychoanalytic
Weinberger, J. (1986). Comment on Robert Fudin's paper "subliminal psychodynamic activation: Mommy and I are not yet one". Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63 (3), pp 1232-1234.
Weinberger, J. (1989). "Response to Balay and Shevrin: Constructive critique or misguided attack?" American Psychologist 44(11): 1417-1419.
Weinberger, J. and L. H. Silverman (1990). "Testability and empirical verification of psychoanalytic dynamic propositions through subliminal psychodynamic activation." Psychoanalytic Psychology 7(3): 299-339.
Effectively argues that SPA research is at least one of the possible methods to study the theory and methods of psychoanalysis in a scientifically testable model. Asserts that the results of studies to date demonstrate support for key elements in psychoanalytic propositions.
Weinberger, J. and R. Hardaway (1990). "Separating science from myth in subliminal psychodynamic activation." Clinical Psychology Review 10(6): 727-756.
Reviews the SPA literature. Asserts that Oedipal sanction stimuli produced reliable effects while Oedipal prohibition stimuli did not.
Weinberger, J. (1992). Validating and
demystifying subliminal psychodynamic activation. Perception without awareness:
Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives. T. S. P. Robert F. Bornstein,
Guilford Press, New York, NY, US: 170-188.
Weissbein, K. (1990). Effect of subliminal Oedipal stimulation on competitive behavior in high, medium, and low castration anxiety college males, California School of Professsional Psychology, San Diego, US.
West, G.N. (1985). The effects of auditory subliminal psychodynamic activation on state anxiety. Ball State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (1-B), p. 319. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Westerlundh, B. (1983). The motives of defence. Perceptgenetic studies: I. Shame. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 23 (7), 13 pages. ISSN: 0555-5620.
Bert Westerlundh found that subjects responded
to iterated tachistoscopic presentations of a picture containing a man
and a boy that was preceded by the subliminally presented words "I am
glad" or "I am ashamed."
Westerlund, B. (1983). Personal organization of the visual field: a study of ambient to focal reports of threatening stimuli. Arch. Psychol., 135 (1), pp 17-35. ISSN: 0066-6475.
Bert Westerlundh performed two experiments
on the subliminal influence of imagery.
Westerlund, B. (1986). On reading subliminal sentences: a psychodynamic activation study. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 26 (10), p. 18.
Conducted two SPA experiments with 120 Swedish women. Results suggest that effect does not depend on syntactic analysis but rather is more globally and emotionally oriented in terms of how the actual subliminal message is processed by the individual.
Westerlund, B.E. & Terjestam, Y.C. (1987). Psychodynamic effects of subliminal verbal messages on tachistoscopically presented interpersonal stimuli. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 27 (3), p. 21.
Mixed results from the tachistoscopic presentation of protracted verbal messages are discussed.
Westerlundh, B. (1989). "A psychodynamic activation study of female oedipal fantasies using subliminal and percept-genetic techniques." Psychological Research Bulletin, Lund U. 29(1-2): 23 p.
This study used two images, one a man and girl, the other a girl and woman together with a sexually explicit message. According to theory, defenses should be evoked. The Defense mechanism Test was used. The data supports the theory of defensive reaction formation against Oedipal impulses. Ramifications are discussed.
White, C. S. (1989). The effects of subliminally presented same and opposite-gender stimuli on anaclitic and introjective depressed males and females, U Southern California, US.
Whitehead, J.C. (1980). Vance, J., Vance, E.J.R., Vance, P., Robertson, A., -vs- Judas Priest, CBS et al. Motion for summary judgements for closing arguments. Case No. 86-5844 and 86-3939. Dept. No. 1. Judicial District Court of the State of Nevada in and for the County of Washoe.
Honorable Jerry Carr Whitehead discusses CBS's argument that subliminal communication is protected under the first amendment rights.
Whittaker, R. (1975). Subliminal Perception: Myth or Magic? Educational Broadcasting, 8 (6), pp 17-22.
Whittaker reviews significant research on subliminal perception and summarizes the evidence for and against it.
Wiener, M. & Kleespies, P. (1968). Some comments and data on partial cue controversy and other matters relevant to investigations of subliminal phenomena: rejoinder. Perceptual Motor Skills, 27 (3), pp 847-846. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Williams, L.J. & Evans, J.R. (1980). Evidence for perceptual defense using a lexical decision task. University of South Carolina. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 50 (1), pp 195-198. ISSN: 0031 5125.
Leonard Williams and James Evans studied perceptual
defense using a lexical decision task.
This suggests evidence for perceptual defense uncontaminated by response bias.
Wolford, G., Marchak, F. & Hughes, H. (1988). Practice effects in backward masking. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 14 (1), pp 101-112.
George Wolford, Frank Marchak and Howard Hughes
of Dartmouth College reported on two experiments demonstrating
practice effects that occur in backward masking studies.
Worgull, N. O. (1991). Preconscious visual processing utilizing a peripheral masking paradigm, U Maine, US.
Worrell, L. & Worrell, J. (1966). An experimental and theoretical note on "conscious and preconscious influences on recall." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3 (1), pp 119-123.
Worthington, A.G. (1964). Effect of subliminal structural cues on reproductions of a simple line drawing. Perceptual and Motor Skills, pp 823-882.
Worthington, A.G. (1966). Generalized phenomena associated with previous pairings of UCS (shock) and subliminal visual stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3 (6), pp 634-644. ISSN: 0022-3514.
Worthington, A.G. & Dixon, N.F. (1964).
Changes in guessing habits as a function of subliminal stimulation. Acta
This article refutes the conclusions reached by J.A. McNulty, F.J. Dockrill and B.A. Levy in experiments on discrimination without awareness.
Includes a transcript of a session with a 25 year olde female patient to support four assumptions about PSA including a higher self that can serve as a mediator and communicator of the unconscious. The unconscious is viewed as capable of autonomous operation, active and intelligent.
Yager, E. K. (1988). "Treating agoraphobia with hypnosis, subliminal therapy and paradoxical intention." Medical Hypnoanalysis Journal 3(4): 156-160.
Sets out a treatment procedure for agoraphobia that includes a combination of paradoxical intention, hypnosis and subliminal stimuli.
Yahnke, B. K. (1988). "The effects of functional brain asymmetry upon subliminal perception." Imagination, Cognition & Personality 8(2): 121-139.
Conducted a study with 96 children between the ages of 8 and 12 years old using auditory subliminal stimuli. Results showed significance across scales with hemispheric processing preferences differentiated. Discusses the research in the context of functional brain asymmetry.
Unconscious visual information was presented to the right or left hemisphere of 26 right handed visually dominant right eye leading men. The left hemisphere presentations reached significance showing the leading role in perception.
Zanot, E.J. & Maddox, L.M. (1982). Subliminal Advertising and Education. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism, Athens, OH.
As a results of claims that the academic community
ignores the subject of subliminal advertising, Eric Zanot and Lynda Maddox
designed a study to ascertain;
Zanot, E.J., Pincus, J.D. & Lamp, E.J. (1983). Public perceptions of subliminal advertising. University of Maryland, College of Journalism, College Park. Journal of Advertising, 12 (1), pp 39-45. ISSN: 0091-3367.
Eric Zanot, J. David Pincus, and E. Joseph Lamb
conducted a telephone survey which revealed that;
Zenhausern, R., Ciaiola, M. & Pompo. C. (1973). Subliminal and supraliminal stimulation and two trapezoid illusions. St. John's University, NY. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 37 (1), pp 251 256.
Zenhausern, R. & Hansen, K. (1974). Differential effects of subliminal and supraliminal accessory stimulation on task components in problem-solving. St. John's University, NY. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38 (2), pp 375-378.
Robert Zenhausern and Karen Hansen studied
the effect of subliminal and supraliminal accessory stimulation on the
Stencil Design Test.
Zenhausern, R., Pompo, C. & Ciaiola, M. (1974). Simple and complex reaction time as a function of subliminal and supraliminal accessory stimulation. St. John's University, NY. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38 (2), pp 417-418. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Robert Zenhausern, Claude Pompo and Michael Ciaiola
tested simple and complex reaction to visual stimuli of subjects under
seven levels of accessory stimulation (white noise).
Zenhausern. R. & Zwosta, M. (1969). Application of signal detection theory to subliminal and supraliminal accessory stimulation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 28, pp 669-704.
Zimbardo, P. G. and M. R. Leippe (1991). The psychology of attitude change and social influence. New York, NY, US, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
(from the preface) We wanted to bring together under
one cover an integrated treatment of a wide range of research, theory,
and application in the realm of social influence. /// The result is a
book that covers all the major social influence topics, including persuasion,
compliance, conformity, obedience, dissonance and self-attribution, conditioning
and social learning, attitude-behavior relations, attitude involvement,
prejudice, nonverbal communication, and even subliminal influence.
Zimmerman, J. K. (1990). The influences of individual differences and experimenter behavior on the effectiveness of the subliminal psychodynamic activation method, City U New York, US.
Zingirian, M., Molfino A., Levialdi, S. &
Trillo, M. (1971). Monocular and binocular responses to liminal and
subliminal stimuli. Ophthalmologica, 162 (1), pp 41-50. ISSN: 0030 3755.
Zuckerman, M. (1960). The effects of subliminal and supraliminal suggestion on verbal productivity.Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 60.
Susan Zuckerman examined the effect
of the subliminal presentation of "symbiotic gratification" and "sanctioned
success-gratification" stimuli on the academic performance of bright underachieving
For girls, the message enabled aspects of the underlying conflict to surface. Thus, girls performed better academically, but showed lower need achievement and trends towards increased affect and lower self-father differentiation.
Zwosta, M. & Zenhausern, R. (1969). Application of signal detection theory to subliminal and supraliminal accessory stimulation. Naussau County Youth Board, Mineola, NY. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 28 (3), pp 699-704.
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