Truth About Subliminal Programs
Choices and Illusions
Peripheral Desk Reference - S
Sackheim, H.A., Packer, I.K. & Gur, R.C. (1977). Hemisphericity, cognitive set and susceptibility to subliminal perception. University of Pennsylvania. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86 (6), pp 624-630.
Although many studies have demonstrated that subliminal stimuli influences
perception and cognition, the effects have been weak and unreliable.
*** Saegert, J. (1979). Another look at subliminal perception. Journal of Advertising Research, 19 (1), pp 55-57. ISSN: 0021-8499.
Saito, T. (1990). "The effect of the subliminal suggestion under hypnosis." Japanese Journal of Hypnosis 35(1-2): 5-11.
Studied the effect of analgesic messages delivered in hypnotic and subliminal conditions.
Jose Salvador Hernandez Gonzalez (1998). Freedom From Dental Anxiety, Department of Social Security for Mexico.
25 patients were exposed to both video and audio Freedom From Dental Anxiety tapes for thirty minutes prior to treatment and thirty minutes during treatment. The conclusion: "..the use of InnerTalk® before an integral odontologic treatment is 100% effective, reducing patient's anxiety and the noise made by the high speed hand piece used in this type of work, and furthermore, reducing the pain suffered by comparison to previous experience." The report goes on to recommend InnerTalk: "Therefore it is convenient to promote, among Dental Surgeons, the use of InnerTalk to improve their patients comfort and achieve a better collaboration to treatments. In the same way, use will change the Estomologist image (feared for so many years).
Samide, J. L. (1991). A study of subliminal visual messages designed to enhance the self-esteem of alcoholic patients at two treatment centers, Indiana U, PA, US.
Gertrude Schmeidler found a positive correlation between ESP and subliminal perception skills.
Schmidt, J.M. (1981). The effects of subliminally presented anaclitic and introjective stimuli on normal young adults. University of Southern Mississippi. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (5-B), pp 2081. ISSN: 0419-4209.
There were no significant findings on the subjective measures of affective states or the Digit Symbol task.
For both groups, however, the relevant depressive stimulus led to significantly more cognitive measures of depression.
Under the relevant depressive stimulus condition, there were significantly more themes of guilt, fear, sadness, narcissistic loss and withdrawal, and less instances of denial-negation content in the freely associated verbal samples.
The relevant depressive stimulus elicited less pathological non-verbal behavior for the anaclitic group, while leading to a greater incidence of this variable for the interojective group.
Schurtman, R., Palmatier, J.R. & Martin, E.S. (1982). On the activation of symbiotic gratification fantasies as an aid in the treatment of alcoholics. Brooklyn VA Medical Center, NY. International Journal of the Addictions, 17 (7), pp 1157-1174. ISSN: 0020-773X.
Two groups of alcoholics, undergoing treatment, were used.
In keeping with the main hypothesis, the experimental subjects were rated as significantly more involved in treatment.
Among the alcoholics who were more symptomatic to begin with, the experimental message, when contrasted with the control, lowered anxiety and depression, enhanced self-concept and reduced alcohol consumption after a 3-month follow-up.
Schwartz, M. (1976). On testing hypotheses about subliminal perception: a reply to Shevrin. Psychophysiology, 13 (1), pp 27-31. ISSN 0048-5772.
Marvin Schwartz recently produced a paper in conjunction with Michael
Rem (1975) in which it was reported that they could find no evidence that
average evoked responses discriminate between two stimuli presented for
durations that were either subliminal or supraliminal for discriminating
the stimuli behaviorally.
Schwartz, M. & Rem, M.A. (1975). Does the average evoked response encode subliminal perception? Psychophysiology, 12 (4), pp 390-394. ISSN: 0048-5772.
Marvin Schwartz and Michael Rem attempted to replicated the work of
Shevrin (1968, 1970 and 1971), where it was reported that the effects
of subliminal perception are encoded in the average evoked response.
Over blocks of trials, exposure duration for the stimuli was 3, 7, 15 and 30 msec.
At 3-msec exposure, all subjects detected the stimuli but could not discriminate between them; discrimination increased with increasing exposure duration.
There was no exposure duration at which the average evoked response measure could discriminate between stimuli.
It was concluded that there was no evidence for either subliminal or supraliminal discrimination of stimulus content by the average evoked response.
Investigated three commercially available tapes by Barry Knoikov, one side hypnotic and the other side subliminal. All three tapes dealt with female issues. The author of claims the tape message essentially blames the woman for their situation and leaves them disempowered.
Severance, L.J. & Dyer, F.N. (1973). Failure of subliminal word presentation to generate interference to color naming. Duke University, Durham, NC. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 101 (1), pp 186-189.
Laurence Severance and Frederick Dyer had previously performed a study
which showed that the presentation of false color names delayed the speed
of naming color patches.
Shah, P.M. (1981). The time course of temporal summation at various background luminances. City University, New York. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (4-B), p. 1660. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Shanks, D. R., R. E. A. Green, et al. (1994). A critical examination
of the evidence for unconscious (implicit) learning. Attention and
performance 15: Conscious and nonconscious information processing. Attention
and performance series. M. M. Carlo Umilta, MIT Press, Cambridge,
MA, US: 837-860.
Shapiro, T. (1978). On the verification of psychoanalytic concepts by extraclinical techniques. International Journal for Psychoanalysts and Psychotherapists, 79 (7), pp 586-601. ISSN: 0091-0600.
In this article, Shapiro discusses "Unconscious Symbiotic Fantasy: A
Ubiquitous Therapeutic Agent" by Lloyd Silverman, Ph.D.
Shevrin, H. (1973). Brain wave correlates of subliminal stimulation, unconscious attention, primary- and secondary-process thinking, and repressiveness. University of Michigan. Psychological Issues, 8 (2, Mono . 30), pp 56-87. ISSN: 0079-7359.
In a series of experiments, Howard Shevrin uses subliminal stimulation
and the cortical evoked response.
Shevrin, H. (1975). Does the averaged evoked response encode subliminal perception? Yes. A reply to Schwartz and Rem. Psychophysiology, 12 (4), pp 395-398. ISSN: 0048-5772.
Shevrin, H. (1976). Rapaport's contribution to research: A look to the future. University of Michigan Medical Center. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 40 (3), pp 211-228.
In this article, Howard Shevrin discusses the importance of research
in investigating the theoretical propositions of psychoanalytic theory
Shevrin, H. (September 17-22, 1979). Evoked potential evidence for unconscious mental processes. A review of the literature. International Symposium on the Unconscious. Tbilissi, Georgia, USSR.
Shevrin, H. (1980, April). Glimpses of the unconscious. Psychology Today, p. 128.
Shevrin, H. (1986). Subliminal perception and dreaming. Special issue: cognition and dream research. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 7 (2-3), pp 379-395.
Shevrin, H. (1990). Subliminal perception and repression. Repression
and dissociation: Implications for personality theory, psychopathology,
and health. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation series on
mental health and development. Jerome L. Singer, University of Chicago
Press, Chicago, IL, US: 103-119.
Shevrin, H. (1992). Subliminal perception, memory, and consciousness:
Cognitive and dynamic perspectives. Perception without awareness: Cognitive,
clinical, and social perspectives. T. S. P. Robert F. Bornstein, Guilford
Press, New York, NY, US: 123-142.
Howard Shevrin and Scott Dickman have found evidence from several diverse fields of research, such as subliminal perception and cortical evoked potentials, of complex psychological processes operating outside of awareness.
Shevrin, H. & Fisher, C. (1967). Changes in the effect of a waking subliminal stimulus as a function of dreaming and nondreaming sleep. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 72 (4), pp 362 368. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Howard Shevrin and Charles Fisher attempted to determine if the presleep
waking state, stages 1 & 2, could be distinguished on the basis of
thought processes paralleling the psychoanalytic concept of primary- and
Shevrin, H. & Fritzler, D.E. (1968). Visual evoked response correlates of the unconscious mental processes. Science, 161 (3838), pp 295-298.
Shevrin, H., & Luborsky, L. (1958). The measurement of preconscious perception in dreams and images: An investigation of the Poetzl phenomenon. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 56.
Shevrin, H., Smith, W.H. & Fritzler, D.E. (1969). Repressiveness as a factor in the subliminal activation of brain and verbal responses. Journal for Nervous Mental Disorders, 149 (3), pp 261-269. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Shevrin, H., Smith, W.H. & Fritzler, D.E. (1970). Repressiveness as factor in subliminal activation of brain and verbal responses. Psychiatry Digest, 31 (7), p. 37. ISSN: 0033-2771.
Shevrin, H., Smith, W.H. & Fritzler, D.E. (1970). Subliminally stimulated brain and verbal response of twins differing in repressiveness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 76 (1), pp 39 46.
Shevrin, H., Smith, W.H. & Hoobler, R. (1970). Direct measurement of unconscious mental processes: Averaged evoked response and free association correlates of subliminal stimulation. Psychological Association, 5 (2), pp 543-544.
Shevrin, H., Voth, H. & Gardner, R.W. (1971). Research perspectives on treatment and diagnosis. Menninger Foundation, Topeka, Kan. Bulletin for the Menninger Clinic, 35 (6), pp 461-478.
Howard Shevrin, Harold Voth and Riley Gardner summarize a panel discussion.
Shifren, I.W. (1982). The interaction between hemispheric preference and the perception of subliminal auditory and visual symbiotic gratification stimuli. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (10-B), pp 4211-4212. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Methodological issues are discussed with suggestions for further studies.
Shirin, S. A. (1993). Misattribution of arousal and post-decisional dissonance, U Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Shostakovich, G. S. (1987). "The neural mechanism of subconscious craving for alcohol in patients with chronic alcoholism." Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S Korsakova. Vol 87(6): 898-902.
Evaluated cortical evoked potential with regard to neutral and meaningful emotional words.
Shulman, D. G. and G. R. Ferguson (1988). "An experimental investigation of Kernberg's and Kohut's theories of narcissism." Journal of Clinical Psychology 44(3): 445-451.
Using a tachistoscope, researchers tested the influence of certain subliminal phrases on narcissistic subjects. The phrase, "I'm needy and hateful," O. Kernberg's (1975) hypothesis, demonstrated a meaningful effect.
Silbert, J. (1982). Human symbiosis, the holding environment and schizophrenia: An experimental study. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (2-B), p. 535. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Joel Silbert used Silverman's technique of "subliminal psychodynamic
activation" by tachistopic presentation of dynamically relevant visual
stimuli in order to;
The "mommy and I are one" message was the only one to produce significant reductions in pathology.
Self-esteem increased with "mommy and I are one" and across all eight groups.
The original findings are therefore replicated, but its relationship to aspects of the holding environment were not supported.
Silverman, L.H. (1966). A technique for the study of psychodynamic relationships: The effects of subliminally presented aggressive stimuli on the production of pathological thinking in a schizophrenic population. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 30, (2), pp 103 131. ISSN: DHW7-0000.
Silverman, L.H. (1968). Further comments on matters relevant to investigations of subliminal phenomena: A reply. New York University. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 27 (3, part 2), pp 1343 1350.
Lloyd Silverman replies to the M. Wiener and P. Kleespies' rejoinder
to the article by Silverman & Spiro on "The partial cue controversy
and matters relevant to investigations of subliminal phenomena".
Silverman, L.H. (1970). Further experimental studies of dynamic propositions in psychoanalysis. On the function and meaning of regressive thinking. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 18 (1), pp 102-124. ISSN: 0003-0651.
Lloyd Silverman conducted a series of experiments in order to provide
an understanding of regressive thinking.
Silverman, L.H. (1971). An experimental technique for the study of unconscious conflict. New York Veterans Administration Hospital. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 44 (1), pp 17 25.
Lloyd Silverman discusses a series of studies using subliminal stimuli
with schizophrenic patients.
Silverman, L.H. (1972). Drive stimulation and psychopathology: On the conditions under which drive-related external events evoke pathological reactions. New York University. Psychoanalysis & Contemporary Science, 1, pp 306-326.
Lloyd Silverman discussed environmental conditions which precipitate
psychopathological reactions by stimulating a threatening drive.
Silverman, L.H. (1975). An experimental method for the study of unconscious conflict: A progress report. British Journal of Psychology, pp 291-298.
Silverman, L.H. (1975). On the role of laboratory experiments in the development of the clinical theory of psychoanalysis: Data on the subliminal activation of aggressive and merging wishes in schizophrenics. VA Hospital, New York, NY. International Review of Psycho-Analysis, 2( 1), 46-64.
Lloyd Silverman discusses the role of laboratory experiments in the
development of the clinical theory of psychoanalysis.
Silverman, L.H. (1975). An experimental method for the study of unconscious conflict: A progress report. New York VA Hospital, New York. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 48 (4), pp 291-298. ISSN: 0007-1129.
In this report, Lloyd Silverman reviews research in which psychodynamic
activation has been used to investigate the relationship between psychopathology
and conflict over unconscious libidinal and aggressive wishes.
In this article, Lloyd Silverman discusses two ongoing research programs,
which were designed to study the relationship between psychopathology
and unconscious libidinal and aggressive wishes.
Silverman, L.H. (1978). Effect of subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on behavior modification treatment of obesity.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46.
Silverman, L.H. ((1978). Further comments on matters relevant to investigations of subliminal phenomena: A reply. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 27 (3), pp 1343-1350.
Silverman, L.H. (1979). Two unconscious fantasies as mediators of successful psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 16, (2), pp 215-228.
Silverman, L.H. (1979). The unconscious fantasy as therapeutic agent in psychoanalytic treatment. Journal of American Academy of Psychoanalysts, 7 (2), pp 189-218. ISSN: 0090 3604.
Silverman, L.H. (1980). A comprehensive report of studies using the subliminal psychodynamic activation method. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 20 (3). ISSN: 0348-3673.
In this report, Lloyd Silverman reviewed more than 60 studies which,
using the subliminal psychodynamic activation method, provide support
for the method.
Lloyd Silverman discusses experiments reported by T.J. Condon &
G.J. Allen and also by K. Heilbrun, where the subliminal psychodynamic
activation method yielded negative results.
Silverman, L.H. (1982b). Rejoinder to Allen and Condon's and Heilbrun's replies. New York University, New York Veterans Administration Regional Office & Research Center for Mental Health. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91 (2), pp 136-138. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Lloyd Silverman has developed the theory psychodynamic activation, which
uses symbiotic fantasies for alleviating anxiety in schizophrenics.
Silverman, L.H. (1985). Comments on three recent subliminal psychodynamic activation investigations: rejoinder to Oliver and Burkham and to Porterfield. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94 (4), pp 647-648. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Lloyd Silverman replies to comments regarding his research on psychodynamic
Silverman, L.H. (1985). Research on psychoanalytic psychodynamic propositions. Special issue: current thinking in psychoanalysis. New York University. Clinical Psychology Review, 5 (3), pp 247-257. ISSN: 0272-7358.
Lloyd Silverman discusses the psychodynamic activation method.
Silverman, L. H. (1985). "Research on psychoanalytic psychodynamic propositions. Special Issue: Current thinking in psychoanalysis." Clinical Psychology Review 5(3): 247-257.
Discusses the psychodynamic activation research the author has been involved in, both of a verbal and pictorial nature.
Silverman, L. H. (1985). "Comments on three recent subliminal psychodynamic activation investigations." Journal of Abnormal Psychology 94(4): 640-643.
Discusses the need for a nonverbal measure of psychopathology in psychodynamic activation research and claims that unwarranted statements have been made about subliminal psychodynamic activation research.
Silverman, L. H. (1985). ""Comments on three recent subliminal psychodynamic activation investigations": Rejoinder to Oliver and Burkham and to Porterfield." Journal of Abnormal Psychology 94(4): 647-648.
Silverman, L.H., Bronstein, A. & Mendelsohn, E. (1976). The further use of the subliminal psychodynamic activation method for the experimental study of the clinical theory of psychoanalysis: On the specificity of the relationship between symptoms and the unconscious. VA Hospital, New York, NY. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 13 (1), pp 2-16. ISSN: 0478-7013.
Silverman, L.H. & Candell, P. (1970). On the relationship between aggressive activation, symbiotic merging, intactness of body boundaries, and manifest pathology in schizophrenics. Journal for Nervous Mental Disorders, 150 (5), pp 387-399.
Silverman, L.H., Candell, P., Pettit, T.F. & Blum, F.A. (1971). Further data on effects of aggressive activation and symbiotic merging on ego functioning of schizophrenics. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 32, pp 93-94.
Silverman, L.H., Frank, S.G. & Dachinger, P. (1974). A psychoanalytic reinterpretation of the effectiveness of systematic desensitization: Experimental data bearing on the role of merging fantasies. Veterans Administration Hospital, New York, NY. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83 (3), pp 313-318.
Subjects with insect phobia were exposed to the tachistoscopic subliminal
exposure of the verbal stimulus "mommy and I are one" during the visualization
part of systematic desensitization, whenever the subject's anxiety level
rose above a specified level.
The experimental group manifested significantly more improvement than
Silverman, L.H. & Goldberger, A.M. (1966). A further study in the effects of subliminal aggressive stimulation on thinking. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 143 (6), pp 463 472. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Lloyd Silverman and Arthur Goldberger used four groups of psychotic
subjects, and exposed them to tachistoscopic pictorial stimuli which were;
Silverman, L.H., Klinger, J., Lustbader, L., Farrel, J. & Martin. A.D. (1972). The effects of subliminal drive stimulation on the speech of stutterers. Veterans Administration Hospital, New York, NY. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 155 (1), pp 14-21. ISSN: 0022-3018.
A study was performed to test the hypothesis that adolescent stutterers would show increased speech impairment after the subliminal pictorial presentation of anal and oral-aggressive themes.
The results showed that speech impairment increased after the oral-aggressive and the anal themes for a paraphrasing task.
Silverman, L.H., Kwawer, J.S., Wolitzky, C. & Coron, M. (1973). An experimental study of aspects of psychoanalytic theory of male homosexuality. Veterans Administration Hospital, New York, NY. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82 (1), pp 178-88.
Lloyd Silverman, Jay Kwawer, Carol Wolitzky and Mark Coron performed this experiment in order to test the psychoanalytic dynamic propositions using the subliminal exposure of drive related stimuli.
It was hypothesized that male homosexuals would show an intensification of homosexual related reactions after the subliminal presentation of an "incest stimulus", and a decrease in such reactions after the subliminal exposure of a "symbiosis stimulus".
On a "sexual feelings assessment" the incest stimulus intensified "homosexual orientation" for homosexuals.
On a Rorschach-type task, the symbiosis condition led to a decrease
in a "threat index".
The results from this study lend support to;
In this article, Lloyd Silverman and Frank Lachmann discuss the research
evidence that supports the thesis that unconscious oneness fantasies can
Silverman, L.H., Lachmann, F.M. & Milich, R.H. (1984). Unconscious
oneness fantasies: Experimental findings and implications for treatment.
New York University. International Forum for Psychoanalysis, 1
(2), pp 107-152. ISSN: 0738-8217.
Silverman, L.H., Lachmann, F.M. & Milich, R.H. (1984). In response. New York University. International Forum for Psychoanalysis, 1 (2), pp 205-217. ISSN: 0738-8217.
Silverman, L.H., Levinson, P., Mendelsohn, E., Ungaro, R. & Bronstein, A. (1975). A clinical application of subliminal psychodynamic activation. On the stimulation of symbiotic fantasies as an adjunct in the treatment of hospitalized schizophrenics. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 161, pp 379-392. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Silverman, L.H., Martin, A., Ungaro, R. & Mendelsohn, E. (1978). Effect of subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on behavior modification treatment of obesity. New York University, Research Center for Mental Health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (3), pp 432-441. ISSN: 0022-006X.
Silverman, L.H. & Mendelsohn, E. (1982). Effects of stimulating psychodynamically relevant unconscious fantasies on schizophrenic pathology. Schizophrenic Bulletin, pp 532-547.
Silverman, L.H., Ross, D., Adler, J. & Lustig, D. (1978). Simple research paradigm for demonstrating subliminal psychodynamic activation: Effects of oedipal stimuli on dart-throwing accuracy in college males. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87 (8), pp 341-357. ISSN: 0021 843X.
Lloyd Silverman, David Ross, John Adler and David Lustig performed four
experiments in order to ascertain the effects of "subliminal psychodynamic
activation" on dart-throwing accuracy.
Silverman, L.H. & Silverman, D.K. (1964). A clinical-experimental approach to the study of subliminal stimulation. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 69 (2).
Silverman, L.H. & Silverman, S.E. (1967). The effects of subliminally presented drive stimuli on the cognitive functioning of schizophrenics. Journal of Projective Techniques and Personality Assessment, 31 (1), pp 78-85. ISSN: 0091-651X.
Silverman L.H. & Spiro, R.H. (1967). Some comments and data on the partial cue controversy and other matters relevant to investigation of subliminal phenomena. Manhattan Veterans Administration Hospital, New York, NY. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 25 (1), pp 325-338.
Lloyd Silverman and Robert Spiro respond to an article by G. Guthrie
and M. Wiener.
Silverman, L.H. & Spiro, R.H. (1968). The effects of subliminal, supraliminal and vocalized aggression on the ego functioning of schizophrenics. Journal of Nervous Mental Disorders, 146 (1), pp 50-61. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Silverman, L.H., Spiro, R.H., Weisberg, J.S. & Candell, P. (1969). The effects of aggressive activation and the need to merge on pathological thinking in schizophrenia. Veterans Administration Hospital, New York, NY. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 148 (1), pp 39 51. ISSN: 0022-3018.
For this study the subjects were exposed to the following conditions;
Silverman, L.H. & Weinberger, J. (1985). Mommy and I are one: Implications for psychotherapy. New York University, Research Center for Mental Health. American Psychologist, 40 (12), pp 1296-1308. ISSN: 0003-066X.
Lloyd Silverman and Joel Weinberger present evidence to support the
idea that there are powerful unconscious wishes for a state of oneness
with "the good mother of early childhood" and that gratification of these
wishes can enhance adaptation.
Silverman, L. H. and J. L. Weinberger (1988). "Reply to O'Dowd and to Tabin and Tabin: Historical priority and alternative interpretations." American Psychologist 43(3): 198-199.
Responds to comments and and agrees with J. K. Tabin and C. J. Tabin, that the effects of the subliminal symbiotic activation message, "mommy and I are one," could be at least partially attributable to the unconsious santioning of the Oedipal-sexual fantasies and deserves further consideration.
Silverman, D. K. (1989). "Reply to Balay and Shevrin's critique of Silverman's subliminal psychodynamic activation research." American Psychologist 44(11): 1422-1423.
Replies to Balay and Shevrin and insists that their criticisms require a mechanistic approach that is inappropriate to the clinical work with schizophrenics.
Simley, O.A. (1931). The relation of subliminal learning. University
of Wisconsin, Madison. Unpublished Dissertation.
Yashvir Singh and Mema Devi investigated the effects of personality
and sex on subliminal guessing ability.
Skean, S.R. (1978). Videotape presentation of subliminal stimulation based on galvanic skin response monitoring: An investigation in counselor education. Rutgers University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38 (11-A), p. 6547.
The primary purpose of this study by Samuel Skean, was to develop and
demonstrate an approach to teaching counselling skills based on the integrated
use of subliminal stimulation, physiological monitoring (GSR) and videotape
Slipp, S. & Nissenfield, S. (1981). An experimental study of psychoanalytic theories of depression. New York University School of Medicine. New York University School of Medicine. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 9 (4), pp 583-600. ISSN: 0090-3604.
Smith, C.D. (1982). Effects of subliminal stimulation on creative thinking. Case Western Reserve University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (6-B), p. 2004. ISSN: 04194209.
Craig Smith investigated the effects of sexual and symbiotic subliminal stimuli on creativity and divergent thinking.
Smith, G. (1967). Differentiation of psychotic subjects by means of the meta-contrast technique: A Preliminary Study. Psychological Research Bulletin, 7 (7), 9 pages.
Gudmund Smith divided psychotic subjects , who had been tested with
the meta-contrast technique (MCT), into six groups according to focal
Smith, G. & Carlsson, I. (1983). Creativity and anxiety: An experimental study. University of Lund, Psychological Lab, Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 24 (2), pp 107-115. ISSN: 0036-5564.
Gudmund Smith and Ingegerd Carlsson tested psychiatric patients, with
anxiety as one of their main symptoms, using a percept-genetic (PG) test
measuring creativity or willingness to reconstruct subjective interpretations
of the stimulus.
Smith, G. J., I. Carlsson, et al. (1985). "Identification with another person: Manipulated by means of subliminal stimulation." Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 26(1): 74-87.
Used a meta-contrast design with psychiatric inpatients and showed that subliminal manipulation in this study had been effective.
Smith, G. J. and I. Carlsson (1988). "Depressive retardation and subliminally manipulated aggressive involvement." Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 29(3-4): 186-193.
Using a meta-contrast design the researchers concluded that there is
a specific association between depression and aggression.
Smith, G. & Carlsson, I. (1986). Creativity and aggression. Lund University, Sweden. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 3 (2), pp 159-172. ISSN: 0736-9735.
Smith, G. & Carlsson, I. (1987). Depressive retardation and subliminally manipulated aggressive involvement. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 27 (5), p.14.
Using a meta-contrast design the researchers concluded that there is a specific association between depression and aggression.
Smith, G., Carlsson, I. & Danielsson, A. (1985). Identification with another person: Manipulated by means of subliminal stimulation. Lund University, Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 26 (1), pp 74-87. ISSN: 0036-5564.
Gudmund Smith, Ingegerd Carlsson and Anna Danielsson studied problems
of identification, using a meta-contrast design.
According to the PG test, creativity correlated negatively with the use of compulsive or depressive defenses and with total absence or excess of anxiety.
Creative subjects more often had access to their dream life as well as their early childhood and tended to remember positive and negative qualities.
Smith, G. & Danielsson, A. (1979). Anxiety and defensive strategies in childhood and adolescence. Psychology Issues, 12 (Monograph 3). New York: International University Press.
Gudmund Smith and Anna Danielsson found that the effects of a backward masked threatening stimulus on the perception of the masking figure, are indicative of high levels of chronic anxiety in the percipient.
Smith, G.J. & Danielsson, A. (1979). The influence of anxiety on the urge for aesthetic creation: An experimental study utilizing subliminal stimulation and a percept-genetic technique. Lund University, Sweden. Psychological Research Bulletin, 19 (3-4), 36 pages.
Smith, G., Spence, D.P. & Klein, G.S. (1959). Subliminal effects of verbal stimuli. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 59.
This study demonstrated that creative people may tend to counter the effects of negative health subliminal stimuli while the lack of creativity may play an important role in psychosomatics. The messages "I Well" and "I Ill" were superimposed on faces using a tachistoscope to flash the words.
Smith, K. H. and M. Rogers (1994). "Effectiveness of subliminal messages in television commercials: Two experiments." Journal of Applied Psychology 79(6): 866-874.
Subjects were exposed to the subliminal and supraliminal message, "choose this" while watching television. Results showed a small significance with the subliminal presentation and a larger significance as a result of the supraliminal phrase.
Smith, R.B. (1979). The effects of the incidental perception of rhythm on task performance and mood. United States International University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (10-B), pp 5049-5050.
Smith, T. B. (1993). "Effects of subliminal stimuli on unconscious processing of anxiety: An examination of implicit perception." Perceptual & Motor Skills 77(3, Pt 1): 899-904.
Using EMG monitoring, subjects were exposed to three types of subliminal stimuli. Results question the validity of emotive effects from subliminal visual presentations.
Snodgrass, J. M. (1989). Basics in subliminal activation: Two experiments concerning psychodynamic causal specificity and dosage effects, Ohio U, US.
Snodgrass, M., H. Shevrin, et al. (1993). "Absolute inhibition is incompatible with conscious perception." Consciousness & Cognition: an International Journal 2(3): 204-209.
Snodgrass, M., H. Shevrin, et al. (1993). "The mediation of intentional judgments by unconscious perceptions: The influences of task strategy, task preference, word meaning, and motivation." Consciousness & Cognition: an International Journal 2(3): 169-193.
This study demonstrates the need to observe task strategies in order to obtain or observe subliminal effects.
Soininen, K. and T. Jarvilehto (1983). "Somatosensory evoked potentials associated with tactile stimulation at detection threshold in man." Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology 56(5): 494-500.
Somekh, D.E. (1976). The effect of embedded words in a brief visual display. British Journal of Psychology, 67 (4), pp 529-535. ISSN: 0007-1269.
This study replicates and extends an experiment by Eagle, Wolitzky &
Somekh, D.E. & Wilding, J.M. (1973). Perception without awareness in a dichoptic viewing situation. Bedford College, University of London, England. British Journal of Psychology, 64 (3), pp 339-349.
This study replicates a previous study by Smith, Spence and Klein, which
claims to demonstrate that difference in meaning between words registered
below recognition threshold could affect associated thought.
Sommer, L. (1986). The effects of subliminal psychodynamic activation on verbal time estimation. Long Island University, Brooklyn Center. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (9-B), p. 3231. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Spangenberg, E. R. (1991). An empirical test of subliminal self-help audiotapes: Are expectancies the active ingredient?, U Washington, US.
This study evaluate the effect of labels on the expectation factor. Commercial subliminal audio tapes were obtained and label switched from memory to esteem and vice versa. The results suggest that the effect of the label increased the expectation in the direction of the label. No independent measure of the gains reported by subjects verified their self reports.
Spence, D.P. (1961). The multiple effects of subliminal stimuliJournal of Personality, 29.
Spence, D.P. (1967). Subliminal perception and perceptual defense: Two sides of a single problem. Behavioral Science, 12 (3), pp 183-193. ISSN: 0005-7940.
Donald Spence discusses the differences between subliminal perception
and perceptual defense.
Spence, D.P. (1983). Subliminal effects on lexical decision time. University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers Medical School, Piscataway. Archiv fur Psychologie, 135 (1), pp 67-72. ISSN: 0066-6475.
Donald Spence studied the reaction times (RTs) of right-handed subjects
to 5-letter target words under subliminal and near-liminal priming conditions.
Spence, D.P. & Bressler, J. (1962). Subliminal activation in conceptual associates: A study of "rational" pre-conscious thinking. Journal of Personality, 38, pp 89-105.
Spence, D.P. & Ehrenberg, B. (1964). Effects of oral deprivation in response to subliminal and supraliminal verbal food stimuli. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 69 (1).
Spence D.P. & Gordon, C.M. (1967). Activation and Measurement of an early oral fantasy: An exploratory study. Research Center for Mental Health, New York, NY. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 15 (1), pp 99-129.
This study by Donald Spence and Carol Gordon found that the effects of rejection did not clearly emerge into awareness unless a subliminal stimulus had also been exposed.
Spence, D.P. & Gordon, C.M. (1973). Activation and assessment of an early oral fantasy: An exploratory study. New York University, Research Center for Mental Health. Psychological Issues, 8 (2, mono. 30), pp 11-28.
Donald Spence and Carol Gordon performed this study in order to test
the proposition that a subliminal stimulus would provide a port of entry
for the study measurement of unconscious fantasies.
The hypothesis was most strongly confirmed in the analysis of important-words which were not on the list but were erroneously recalled.
Spence, D.P. & Holland, B. (1962). The restricting effects of awareness: A paradox and an explanation. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 64, pp 163-174.
Spence D.P. & Smith, G.J. (1977). Experimenter bias against subliminal perception? Comments on a replication. Rutgers Medical School, Piscataway. British Journal of Psychology, 68 (3), pp 279-280.
Spiro, T.W. (1976). The effects of subliminal symbiotic stimulation and strengthening self boundaries of schizophrenic pathology. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (11-B), pp 5818-5819.
Spitz, E. H. (1991). Image and insight: Essays in psychoanalysis
and the arts. New York, NY, US, Columbia University Press.
Stadler, M. & Kruse, P. (1990). The self-organization perspective in cognition research: historical remarks and new experimental approaches. Department of Psychology, University of Bremen. Springer Series in Synergetics, 45, pp 32-52.
The authors discuss the synergetic effects in cognition and behavior
as systems in phase transitions from unstable to stable states, or from
one stable state to another of higher order passing unstable phases.
Stambrook, M. & Martin, D.G. (1983). Brain laterality and the subliminal perception of facial expression. International Journal of Neuroscience, 18 (1-2), pp 45-58. ISSN: 0020-7454.
In this study, right-handed subjects were presented simultaneously with;
The results showed a left field advantage in locating the face.
There was only suggestive evidence in favor of a right hemisphere superiority in the processing of facial expression.
Staum, M. J. and M. Brotons (1992). "The influence of auditory subliminals on behavior: A series of investigations." Journal of Music Therapy 29(3): 130-185.
Evaluated subliminal audio tapes and their effect in three areas with 349 college students. Analysis of the tapes revealed no significant difference in the music on the tapes but did show a difference in written scripts and purported tape content. Data from the study showed no effect on behavior or subconscious imagery, written and pictorial.
Steele, E.H. (1969). The impact of psychoanalytic theory on the freedom of speech. Psychoanal Q (United States), 38 (4), pp 583-615.
Steinberg, R.J. (1975). The effects of subliminal mother-need tachistoscopic stimulation on the ego pathology of hospitalized male schizophrenics. Long Island University, Brooklyn Center. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (4-B), p. 1934.
The stimuli used were;
Strauch, I. et. al. (1976). The impact of meaningful auditory signals on sleeping behavior. University of Saarlandes, Saarbrucken, West Germany. Archiv fur Psychologie, 128 (1-2), pp 75-95. Language: GERMAN.
This study was performed in order to determine the awakening thresholds
in various sleep stages, and to assess the effects of subliminal stimulation.
Strauss, H. (1968). A phenomenological approach to the subconscious. Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel. Nordisk Psykologi, 20 (4), pp 203-206.
Helen Strauss discusses a phenomenological approach to the "subconscious"
and gives 3 ways of using the subconscious;
Stross, L. & Shevrin, H. (1968). Thought organization in hypnosis and the waking state. The effects of subliminal stimulation in different states of consciousness. Menninger Foundation, Topeka, KS. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 147 (3), pp 272-288. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Lawrence Stross and Howard Shevrin described three experiments on subliminal
stimulation which involved recall of percepts, images, free associations,
and dreams in hypnosis and the waking state.
Sturman, P.A. (1980). Derivatives of the castration complex in normal adults. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (1-B), p. 370.
Philip Sturman hypothesized that the arousal of the unconscious derivatives
of the castration complex in normal adult males and females would lead
to intrapsychic conflict capable of interfering with performance in various
spheres of functioning.
Sullivan, R. (1985) Biofeedback theta training coupled with subliminal audio suggestions in the treatment of alcoholism. Center for Alcohol Rehabilitation and Educational Services, Medford, OR. Mimeographed Manuscript, Bio-Feedback Systems, Inc., Boulder, CO.
Rita Sullivan used EEG theta wave biofeedback training and subliminal
messages to study the relationships between
Swanson, N.J. (1985). The improvement of test performance through the use of a subliminal hypnosis tape. Doctoral Dissertation, Nova University, FL.
Norma Swanson (1985) used Potentials Unlimited subliminal tapes with
nursing students preparing for a state license examination.
Swanson, R.J. (1981). The effects of oedipally-related stimuli in the subliminal psychodynamic activation paradigm. A replication and an extension. Loyola University, IL. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (11-B), p. 4278. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Swart, L. C. and C. L. Morgan (1992). "Effects of subliminal backward-recorded messages on attitudes." Perceptual & Motor Skills 75(3, Pt 2): 1107-1113.
Backward-recorded messages in a popular song were played to three groups to test the hypothesis that messages of this type would influence the listeners attitudes. Results failed to support the hypothesis.
Swingle, P. G. (1992). Subliminal treatment procedures: A clinician's guide. Sarasota, FL, US, Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange, Inc.
(from the introduction) Let me (the author) immediately state that subliminal
effects are real and it is not my purpose to attempt to persuade any reader
of this fact.... What is in question is the therapeutic efficacy of subliminal
technology. Hence, I feel that a guide is needed to assist clinicians
in the preparation of subliminal materials and the necessary methodological
procedures for the application and assessment of subliminal treatments.
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