Truth About Subliminal Programs
Choices and Illusions
Peripheral Desk Reference - M
Magri, M. (1979). Effects of sexual guilt upon affective responses to subliminal sexual stimuli. College of William and Mary. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (2-B), p. 926.
Michael Magri designed this study in order to investigate the effects
of sexual guilt on the physiological and affective responses to the subliminal
presentation of sexual words.
Majdi, M. (1983). An audio system for producing a subliminal message.
University of Louisville. Masters Abstracts, 22 (01), p.
Maloney, J.C. (1983). Some psychoanalytic aspects of coronary prone behavior. Adelphi University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (7-B), p. 2346. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Jeffrey Maloney designed this study to test the effects of tachistopically
stimulating unconscious-compulsive fantasy on some correlates of coronary-prone
Maltsev, S. M. (1988). "On sub-sensory and sensorial-motor anticipation in the process of musical improvization." Voprosy Psikhologii. No 3: 115-122.
Mandel, K.H. (1970). Problems and initiation of behavior therapy with male homosexuals. Zeitschrift fur Psychotherapie und medizinische Psychologie, 20 (3), pp 115-125. Language: GERMAN.
This article discusses the problems of aversive conditioning of homosexual
responses, and considers the literature on the various methods of behavioral
therapy in male homosexuals.
Manfield, D.C. (1987). Computer-assisted weight-loss: a subliminal and behavioral methodology for motivated females. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (9-B), p. 3943.
Marcel, A.J. (1983). Conscious and unconscious perception: An approach to the relations between phenomenal experience and perceptual processes. Cognitive Psychology, 15, pp 238-300.
Marcel, A.J. (1983). Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 15 (2), pp 197-237. ISSN: 0010-0285.
Anthony Marcel presented five experiments in order to explore the relation
of masking to consciousness and visual word processing.
Experiment 2 - the subjects again had to choose which of the two words was more similar either graphically or semantically to a nondetectable masked word, but the forced-choice stimuli now covaried negatively on graphic and semantic similarity.
The subjects were now unable to choose selectively on each dimension, which suggests that their ability to choose in experiment 1 was passively rather than intentionally mediated.
Experiment 3 - the subjects had to make manual identification responses to color patches which were either accompanied or preceded by words masked to prevent awareness.
It was found that color congruent words facilitated reaction time, whereas color incongruent words delayed reaction time.
Experiment 4 - a lexical decision task was used where a trial consisted of the critical letter string following another not requiring a response. When both were words they were either semantically associated or not. The first letter string was either left unmasked, energy masked monoptically, or pattern masked dichoptically to prevent awareness.
The effect of association was equal in the unmasked and pattern masked cases, but absent in the energy masking.
Experiment 5 - repeating a word-plus-mask (where the SOA precluded detection) from 1 to 20 times;
Perceptual processing itself is unconscious and automatically proceeds to all levels of analysis and redescription available to the perceiver.
Marconi-Manda, L.R. (1980). Performance optimization as a function of accessory auditory stimulation for hyperactive and non-hyperactive children. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (04-B), p. 1514.
Linda Marconi-Manda studied the differential effect of graduated levels
of accessory auditory stimulation at the subliminal and supraliminal levels
on the performance of hyperactive and normal children on an attention
The findings were offered as evidence to support a more complex etiology of hyperactivity - one involving other brain structures besides the reticular activating system,
particularly those implicated in incentive and reward.
It was reported that Toyota used one-sixth of a second flashes of a
race car in a television commercial similar to the technique used in the
film "The Pawnbroker."
Advertising Age, (1973, December 24). "Subliminal" ad flap raised,
Florida trial of TV addict goes on the air. Broadcasting, (October 3, 1977), pp 31-32.
A 15-year-old boy is being tried for first-degree murder and his attorney is pleading that the boy is insane due to "involuntary, subliminal TV intoxication."
Games Corporations play: Sponsor a sports event. Marketing Communications, (November 1978), pp 20-26.
Although sports can sell almost everything, sports endorsements are
an expensive advertising approach.
Whether subliminal perception influences behavior is examined by J. Saegert of the University of Texas at San Antonio. Journal of Advertising Research, (February 1979), pp 55-57.
Although subliminal perception is an emotional issue, the technique
has potential applications for advertising and marketing if it has a reliable
Subliminal communication is said to be capable of guiding and controlling human behavior. Business & Society Review, p. 62-64.
Experiments in subliminal communication continue. Output (January,
1981), pp 36 & 38.
"Subliminal synergism" - harmonized color schemes between an ad and facing editorial copy - attracts advertisers to New Woman magazine. Folio: The Magazine for Magazine Management. (September 1982), pp 32 & 34.
Subliminal synergism is where dominant colors from a four color ad behind
headline blocks appear on the facing editorial pages.
Environmental Video has introduced a Subliminal Persuasion video cassette that superimposes low level video messages on cassette tapes. Video News (July 22, 1983), pp 4 & 5.
The video cassette will help consumers lose weight, stop smoking or make other lifestyle changes.
Stimutech (E. Lansing, MI) launches Expando-Vision, a device that delivers subliminal messages via computer. Merchandising (December 1983), p. 42.
Using Expando-Vision, customers can now lose weight, stop smoking, control
stress or improve their sexual confidence while watching TV.
Stimutech has introduced a device to change behavior by subliminal suggestion. Wall Street Journal, (September 30, 1983), p. 33.
The Expando-Vision box hooks into a TV set via a home computer, and
works by flashing onto the screen, split-second images designed to help
the viewer with weight loss, stress control, success motivation, sex.
Pacific Bell's low-key approach to Olympic sponsorship. Public Relations Journal, (September 1984), pp 18-20.
Pacific Bell's corporate sponsorship of the Olympics achieved the results
of a major ad campaign at far less cost.
Ads against wall in video background. Advertising Age, (February 28, 1985), p. 6.
Entertel is seeking advertisers to slip short messages into its ambient
Company-Built retreats reflect firm's cultures and personalities. Wall Street Journal, (August 16, 1984), p. 27.
Firms who can afford to build their own training schools claim they
are cheaper than resort hotels and better equipped to instill a sense
of company culture.
Controversial "brainwashing" and self-hypnosis software released to public. News Releases, (October 1984), pp 1-4.
New Life Institute announced subliminal software for the IBM PC and
Dingell dangles clout over alcohol hearings. Advertising Age, (February 11, 1985), p. 2 & 84.
Sen. P. Hawkins, R-FL, closed a one-day Senate session before her alcoholism
and drug abuse subcommittee by denouncing the "subliminal" effects of
alcohol ads on the public.
Dristan ads are blatantly subliminal. Marketing (December 9, 1985), 90 (49), p. 2. ISSN: 0025 3642.
An advertisement run by Whitehall Laboratories on its Dristan Cold Tablet
is a spoof on so-called subliminal advertising.
Outdoor advertising requires great use of creativity. Marketing News, (June 7, 1985), pp 7 & 24.
The idea behind billboard advertising is the reinforcement of an ad
message, and also as an aid to prompting consumer purchases.
Post yuppies - Are they turning into computer sneaks? New Release, (October 1, 1985), pp 1-4.
International Resource Development believes that the market for self-improvement
software will rapidly increase as the home software market shifts to meet
the needs of consumers 25 to 44 (the post-Yuppie generation.
Shoplifting Reduced 80% by Subliminal Technology. American Metal Market (August 16, 1984), p. 14.
Retail stores used subliminal appeals to reduce shoplifting by 80%,
but critics worried about privacy and ethical issues.
Spaghetti and tomato sauces -- why not aseptics? Paper, Film & Foil Converter, (October 1985), pp 100-104.
Aseptic tomato-based products are popular in the United Kingdom due
to their image of being fresher.
Subliminal testing: 25 years later. Marketing Communications, (April 1985), p. 8. ISSN: 0091 1305.
Subliminal television advertising involves flashing images across a
screen just below the level of conscious vision.
Suggestive software. Computer Decisions, (January 29, 1985), p. 26.
Greentree Publishers offers software that flashes subliminal messages
on employee's VDTs.
"Threshold messaging" touted as antitheft measure. Marketing News, (March 15, 1985), pp 5 & 6.
Proactive Systems in Portland, Ore. is offering a threshold messaging
system for retailers as an antitheft service.
Enter a quiet voice against shoplifting. Providence Journal, (February 18, 1986), p. Sec B & 1.
Subliminal messages are being used by retailers to combat shoplifting.
Reeling and dealing: Video meet Wall Street. Business Week Industrial Edition (May 19, 1986), pp 126-128.
Nearly all major brokerage firms are using video films to promote new
Study claims office computer is used as management fink. MIS Week (April 21, 1986), p. 36.
Office computers are being used to monitor and control employees activities.
Subliminal messages: Subtle crime stoppers. Chain Store Age Executive Edition, July 1986), p. 85-88.
Subliminal messages are used in 1,000 plus retail stores as a deterrent
Crooked Employees. Building Supply & Home Centers, (April 1987), pp 88-94.
Building supply home centers turn to high-tech hardware to curb employee
Pier Auge's re-entry more exclusive. Women's Wear Daily, (March 13, 1987), p. 30.
In-store Pier Auge institutes offer a 1.5 hour facial, during which customers hear subliminal tapes and have aroma treatments.
Spirit industry beams over BATF review. Advertising Age, (August 13, 1984), p. 6.
Amongst the BATF proposals regarding the advertising of alcohol, is the ban on subliminal advertising.
If this fails, try smashing the bug with the flat end of the radio. Wall Street Journal 3 Star, (Princeton, NJ) (June 5, 1985), 205 (109), p. 33. ISSN: 0043-0080.
Radio station, CIME-FM of Ste Therese, Quebec, broadcasts subliminal
relaxation messages in the evening and subliminal-energizing messages
in the morning.
CRTC changes mind on television rules. Marketing (Canada's weekly newspaper of marketing communication). (January 19, 1987). 92 (3), pp 1 & 3.
Amongst the other changes the CRTC have made to their regulations is
the lifting of the ban regarding the use of subliminal advertising.
Subliminal advertising: Fact or fantasy. Advertising Compliance Service. (November 18, 1985). 5 (22), pp 4-7. ISSN: 0277-9943.
This article discusses subliminal advertising with regards to the technique
of tachistopic projection.
Subliminal advertising: Fact or fancy. Advertising Compliance Service. (December 2, 1985). 5, (23), pp 8-12. ISSN: 0277-9943.
Possible suggestions for regulating subliminal advertising are:
Subliminal advertising: Do messages lurk in the shadows?. Food and Beverage Marketing (October, 1985). 4, (10), p. 42. ISSN: 0731-3799.
Dr. Haberstroh, professor at Virginia Commonwealth University, states
that there is no evidence that subliminal advertising affects products'
Sidelights: Subliminal/videos. Television/Radio Age. (January 7, 1985). 32 (13), p. 96. ISSN: 0040-277X.
This article discusses the use of subliminal self-improvement video
Subliminal messages come out of the closet. Progressive Grocer. (April, 1985). 64 (4), pp 6 & 10. ISSN: 0033-0787.
Electronic subliminal messaging systems, using "honesty reinforcements"
messages, have resulted in as much as 30% reductions in retail thefts.
A report on subliminal perception and subliminal tapes for self-improvement. Institute of Human Development. (1986).
This guide provided detailed information about what subliminal perception is and how you can use subliminal tape programming to make the life changes you desire.
What's new in subliminal messages by John Lofflin. The New York Times. (March 20, 1988). p. 63.
Although there is still great controversy over the effectiveness of
subliminal messages, self help audio cassette containing subliminal messages
are taking bookstores by storm.
There's less to subliminal audio tapes than meets the ears. Your Personal Best. (June, 1990).
Timothy Moore, Ph.D., former chairman of the psychology department at
Glendon College, York University, Toronto, states that self-help subliminal
audio tapes are form of health fraud.
Martin, A. (1975). The effect of subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on weight loss in obese women receiving behavioral treatment. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (6-B), pp 3054-3055.
Martin, D.G., Hawryluk, G.A. & Guse, L.L. (1974). Experimental study of unconscious influences: Ultrasound as a stimulus. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83.
This study presented 84 male undergraduates with the anxiety arroussing message, "no one love me." Results suggests that drive related stimuli must be presented subliminally to have effects on behavior (Silverman's hypothesis).
Masling, J. M. (1992). What does it all mean? Perception without
awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives. T. S. P.
Robert F. Bornstein, Guilford Press, New York, NY, US: 259-276.
Maxwell, N. (1980, November 25). Words whispered to subconscious supposedly deter thefts, fainting.Wall Street Journal.
Neil Maxwell reported on a subliminal message system in a New Orleans supermarket, which accounted for a drop in pilferage loss from about $50,000 to less than $13,000 in six months.
Cashier shortages dropped from $125 per week to less than $10 per week.
McConnell, J.V., Cutler, R.L. & McNeil, E.B. (1958). Subliminal stimulation: An overview. American Psychologist, 13.
John McCormack performed this study in order to determine if a subject's own admission of controlled attention was altered by varying levels of projected light intensities and durations of a sex-related subliminal message.
The correlation between the respondents' admission of controlled attention and their gender also was investigated.
An inquiry was made into differences in responses of the various stimulated groups and the unstimulated control groups.
Without their knowledge, subjects were exposed to a sex-related subliminal message within a normal classroom environment.
The subliminal presentation was linked to a learning task provided within
the post test.
A two-way analysis of variance, the Friedman's Analysis of Variance, the independent t-test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and the Pearson product-moment correlation were performed on the results.
The results of the study were;
McDaniel, S.W., Hart, S.H. & McNeal, J.U. (1981). Mid-Atlantic Journal of Business, 20 (1), pp 41-48. ISSN: 0021-9401.
Stephen McDaniel, Sandra Hart and James McNeal reviewed the findings
of several subliminal stimulation experiments and considered possible
business applications of subliminal stimulation.
McGreen, P. (1986). The effects of father absence on affective responses to subliminal symbiotic messages. Ohio University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (11-B), pp 4021-4022. ISSN: 0419-4209.
McIver, T. (1988). Backward masking, and other backward thoughts about music. The Skeptical Inquirer, 13, pp 50-63.
Tom McIver discusses the use of backward masking and subliminals in popular rock music.
This article reports on a system developed by David Riccio, president of Viaticus Group, which consists of musical audio programs for retail stores combined with subliminal messages designed to discourage shoplifting.
Research shows that shoplifting has been reduced between 20 and 40% in settings that use this approach.
The system is not, however, being recommended as a blanket answer to
McNulty, J.A., Dockrill, F.J. & Levy, B.A. (1967) The subthreshold
perception of stimulus meaning? American Journal of Psychology, 80
(1), pp 28-40. ISSN: 0002-9556.
Mendelsohn, E.M. (1979). Responses of schizophrenic men to subliminal psychodynamic stimuli. Yeshiva University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (12-B, part 1), pp 5820 5821.
Mendelsohn, E.M. (1981). The effects of stimulating symbiotic fantasies on manifest pathology in schizophrenics. A revised formulation. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, pp 580-590.
Morris Mendelsohn investigated the relationship between a symbiotic
subliminal stimulus (Mommy and I are one) and behaviour as measured by
Merikle, P.M. (1982). Unconscious perception revisited. University of Waterloo, Canada. Perception & Psychophysics, 31 (3), pp 298-301. ISSN: 0031-5117.
Merikle, P. M. and H. E. Skanes (1992). "Subliminal self-help audiotapes: A search for placebo effects." Journal of Applied Psychology 77(5): 772-776.
Subliminal self-help weight loss tapes were evaluated. The tapes were obtained from one commercial company. Results suggest that regular use of the tapes may simply make users more aware of their weight. Three groups of subjects, an experimental, a control a placebo group were involved in the design. All three groups lost approximately equivalent weight.
Messina, J. (1991). The effects of subliminal stimuli in naturally occurring mood states on the performance of a perceptual task, Fordham U, NY, US.
Meyers, H.G. (1982). The effects of a double bind induced by conflicting visual and auditory subliminal stimuli. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (8-B), p. 3432. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Helen Meyers performed this study in order to determine the effects
on state anxiety, word associations and word recognition ability of conflicting
positive and negative auditory and visual subliminal messages.
The lack of complete support for the subliminal activation of the double bind was discussed with reference to;
Further studies were recommended in order to investigate;
Mibashan, D. (1992). Auditory subliminals: Effects on the emotional tone of a writing task and on the subjects' mood, U Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Miller, J.G. (1939). Discrimination without awareness. American Journal of Psychology, 52, pp 562-578.
James Miller used an opaque mirror to project five subliminal images.
Miller, J.M. (1974). The effects of aggressive stimulation upon young adults who have experienced the death of a parent during childhood or adolescence. Dissertation Abstracts International, 35 (2-B), pp 1055-1056.
Miller, J. (1991). "Threshold variability in subliminal perception
experiments: Fixed threshold estimates reduce power to detect subliminal
effects." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception &
Performance 17(3): 841-851.
Miller, L. (1986). In search of the unconscious. Seton Hall University. Psychology Today, 20 (12), pp 60-64. ISSN: 0033-3107.
In this article, Lawrence Miller discussed the use of the techniques
and concepts of the neurosciences to examine fundamental Freudian constructs
such as the unconscious mind, repression, dream symbolism, sexuality,
and the development of neurotic symptoms.
Mind invasion: The facts. (December, 1973). Family Health, p. 42.
This article presents information about Hal Becker's "little black box,"
U.S. patent No. 3,278,676.
Mitchell, C. W. (1995). "Effects of subliminally presented auditory suggestions of itching on scratching behavior." Perceptual & Motor Skills 80(1): 87-96.
This study presented verbal itching suggestions masked in music on an audio tape. No evidence for the subliminal influence was found.
Mitchell. M.S. (1985). The effects of subliminally presented praise and reprobation stimuli on willingness to self-disclose. Arizona State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (12-B Pt 1), p. 3986. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Mofield, J.P. (1986). Response of blood pressure to relaxation and subliminal suggestion. Ball State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (9-A), p. 2632. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Mogg, K., B. P. Bradley, et al. (1993). "Subliminal processing of emotional information in anxiety and depression." Journal of Abnormal Psychology 102(2): 304-311.
Using a modified version of the Stroop color test, researchers showed a realtively slower color identification (naming) when paired with supraliminal and subliminal negative words.
Mogg, K., J. Kentish, et al. (1993). "Effects of anxiety and awareness on colour-identification latencies for emotional words." Behaviour Research & Therapy 31(6): 559-567.
Using a modified Stroop color naming test the interference effect of subliminal and supraliminal emotional words was measured. Results show a correlation between mood state preparation (anxiety or relaxation) and increases in trait anxiety and interference on the naming task.
Moller, A. T., H. F. Kotze, et al. (1993). "Comparison of the effects of auditory subliminal stimulation and rational-emotive therapy, separately and combined, on self-concept." Psychological Reports 72(1): 131-145.
Findings show a significant increase in self concept for the subliminal
group in this study which compared auditory subliminal stimulation with
Rational Emotive Therapy (RET).
Montgomery, D. P. (1990). The effects of subliminal visual symbiotic stimulation on the self concept of college students, Oklahoma State U, US.
John Moore studied the effects of subliminal captions on recall of cognitive
information presented in a TV program.
It was found that, in comparison to other treatments, the program having "combined" captions produced significantly higher recall among field dependents and received significantly higher ratings on teaching effectiveness and student interest.
It was concluded that recall is improved when conventional instruction is supplemented with subliminal.
Moore, T.E. (1982). Subliminal advertising: What you see is what you get. York University, Glendon College, Toronto, Canada. Journal of Marketing, 46 (2), pp 38-47. ISSN: 0022-2429.
Timothy Moore evaluates the evidence and arguments advanced in support of the effectiveness of various subliminal advertising techniques.
Subliminal advertising techniques are purported to influence consumer
behavior by subconsciously altering preferences or attitudes toward consumer
The idea that subliminal directives can influence behavior is contradicted
by much research and is incompatible with theoretical conceptions of perceptions
The potential impact of subliminal stimuli is easily countered by ongoing stimulation in the same sensory channel or by the attention being focused on another modality.
Moore, T.E. (1985). Subliminal delusions. Psychology Today, 19 (2), p. 10.
Timothy Moore claims that there is no scientific evidence to support the claims that subliminal stimuli can have significant effects on motives and behavior.
Moore states that there is nothing to be concerned about when advertisers or musicians use subliminals.
Moore, T. E. (1989). "Subliminal psychodynamic activation and the establishment of thresholds." American Psychologist 44(11): 1420-1421.
Comments on SPA research suggesting that mixed findings may be due to different "subliminality."
Moore, T. E. (1995). "Subliminal self-help auditory tapes: An empirical test of perceptual consequences." Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 27(1): 9-20.
Tested certain commercially available subliminal audio tapes and determined that they do not meet the minimum necessary requirements for demonstrating subliminal perception.
Morgan D.L. (Ed.). (1987). Readings in subliminal communication. (Rev. ed.). Report No. 1. Clarion, PA: Center for Independent Research.
Morgan, D.L. & Cole, M.J. (1987). Subliminal suppression of pain. (Report No. 5.). Clarion University, PA: Center for Independent Research,
An investigation was carried to test the hypothesis that more than half
the subjects who use the SCWL technique for pain relief would report a
reduced intensity of pain.
No control group was used.
The number of patients who did report relief with the tape (76 percent) was statistically significant.
Morgan, D.L. & Morgan, P.K. & Kole, J. (1985). Effect of subliminal messages on academic performance. Report No. 2. Clarion University, PA: Center for Independent Research.
Don Morgan, Patricia Morgan and James Kole demonstrated the effectiveness of subliminal techniques for improving academic performance.
A double blind study was performed to test the effects of an SCWL program, designed to increase recall in test situations. The results showed that the experimental group outperformed their classmates who listened to identical sounding placebo tapes containing no subliminal messages.
Don and Patricia Morgan surveyed the research related to use of subliminal communication in schools and other learning situations.
Morgan, P.K. & Morgan, D.L. (1988). Subliminal Research: Bibliography and Review. (Report No. 3). Center for Independent Research.
Patricia and Don Morgan presented a bibliography and review of all the literature relating to subliminal communication.
Moriarty, J.B. (1968). Cognitive functioning of schizophrenics as affected by "aggressive" stimuli subliminally and supraliminally presented. Fordham University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 29( 2-B), p. 775.
Moroney, E. & Bross, M. (1984). Effect of subliminal visual material on an auditory signal detection task. Concordia University, Montreal, Canada. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 58 (1), pp 103-113. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Elaine Moroney and Michael Bross performed this experiment in order to assess whether subliminally embedded visual material could have effects on an auditory detection task, which would indicate that subliminal registration occurred.
Subjects were presented tachistoscopically with words designated as
"emotional" or "neutral" on the basis of prior GSRs and a word rating
list under 4 conditions;
On each trial, the subjects made forced choices concerning the presence or absence of an auditory tone (1000Hz) at threshold level.
Hits and false-alarm rates were used to compute non-parametric indices for sensitivity and response bias.
While overall ANVOAs yielded no significant differences, further examination of the data suggested the presence of subliminally receptive and nonreceptive subpopulations.
Results suggest a differentiation between subliminally receptive and subliminally non receptive populations.
Morrison, A.P. (1984). Reflections on "Unconscious oneness fantasies." Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Mental Health Center, Boston. International Forum for Psychoanalysis, 1 (2), pp 167-180. ISSN: 0738-8217.
Andrew Morrison discusses the work of L.H. Silverman et al who found that the presentation of subliminal symbiotic messages to some psychiatric patients, including schizophrenics, had the effect of decreasing or increasing their psychopathology, depending on the message content (and, for schizophrenics, on the degree of differentiation).
Unlike the conclusions of Silverman et al, Morrison suggests that the ability to tolerate feelings of union and individuation is a major task of therapy.
A case history of a 30-year-old man who had fantasies of merging with a male friend is described.
This article reviews subliminal research and concludes that, "Experiments show subliminal stimuli possess mysterious therapeutic powers."
The example of subliminal advertising given was the six-week test of the technique in 1957, where viewers at a Fort Lee, New Jersey movie theater were exposed to "eat popcorn" and "drink Coca-Cola" messages flashed on the screen every five seconds for about 1/1000 of a second during the film.
Popcorn sales increased by 57.5% and Coca-Cola sales by 18%.
Moss, M. R. (1988). Effects of subliminally activated merging fantasies on memory, New York U, US.
Mullins, W.W. (1978). Convexity theorem for subthreshold stimuli in linear models of visual contrast detection. Carnegie-Mellon University. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 68 (4), pp 456-459. ISSN: 0030-3941.
Murch, G.M. (1965). A set of conditions for a consistent recovery of a subliminal stimulus. Journal for Applied Psychology, 49 (4), pp 257-260. ISSN: 0021-9010.
The experimental groups received subliminal answers to the problems at a level established by a pre-test group.
Group 1 attempted to solve the problems, group 2 to guess the answers and group 3 to select their answers from dual possibilities on a given list.
Groups 1 and 2 showed a significant tendency to repeat various subliminally projected digits in their answers , without the answers directly affecting their computational processes.
Group 3 selected the projected answers significantly over the correct answers.
It was found that their is a need for a positive relationship between supra- and subliminal stimuli as well as the relevancy of the task to the subject's present activity.
Murch, G.M. (1967). Temporal gradients of response to subliminal stimuli. Portland State College. Psychological Record, 17 (4),pp 483-492.
Gerald Murch performed this study in order to investigate the duration
of the effects of subliminal stimulation in a discrimination situation.
This study showed that minimal cognitive exposure could result in displaced or diffused onto unrelated stimuli. The Zajonc hypothesis of affective primacy which asserts that both positive and negative responses can be evoked with minimal stimulus input and virtually no cognitive processing was supported. Further, the data from this study suggest that when minimal exposure to a stimulus occurs, eliciting affect out of awareness, it is diffuse and non-specific.
Mykel, N.B. (1977). Emergence of unreported stimuli into imagery as a function of laterality of presentation. Georgia State University School of Arts and Sciences. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (8-B), p. 4158.
Nancy Mykel performed three experiments.
Possible reasons for this result were discussed.
Mykel, N. & Davies, W.F. (1979). Emergence of unreported stimuli into imagery as a function of laterality of presentation: A replication of and extension of research by Henley and Dixon (1974). Gallia-Jackson-Meigs Community Mental Health Center, Gallipolis, OH. British Journal of Psychology, 70 (2), pp 253-258. ISSN: 0007-1269.
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