Truth About Subliminal Programs
Choices and Illusions
Peripheral Desk Reference - L
Lander, E. (1981, February). In through the out door. Omni, 3 (6), p. 44.
Landis, T., L. Christen, et al. (1992). "Dissociated hemispheric and stimulus effects upon affective choice and recognition." International Journal of Neuroscience 62(1-2): 81-87.
Two major effects were observed in this study which subliminally presented hemisphere specific dissociations to 72 men between the ages of 20 and 30 years old. Researchers concluded that reciprocal inhibition may underlie the reason between the types of judgements. The inhibition effect was stronger for the right than for the left visual filed.
Langerholc, J. (1984). "What is the Mona Lisa really smiling about?" Rivista di Psicologia dell'Arte 6(10-11): 5-22
Criticizes Freudians for interpreting the many subliminal male faces in the Mona Lisa as an automatic unconscious attribute of the artist's mind.
Lasaga, J.I. & Lasaga, A.M. (1973). Sleep learning and progressive blurring of perception during sleep. Crownsville State Hospital, MD. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 37 (1), pp 51-62. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Jose and Agueda Lasaga presented verbal stimuli (numbers) to the subjects
during different stages of sleep.
Based on the response of some of the subjects, there is a possibility of subliminal perception during sleep.
Objects to Lloyd Silverman's work on the basis that he failed to obtain informed consent from the subjects. Silverman's response is also included.
Lazarus, R.S. & McCleary, R.A. (1951). Automatic discrimination without awareness: A study of subception. Psychological Review, 58, pp 113-122.
Leclerc, C. & Freibergs, V. (1971). The influence of perceptual and symbolic subliminal stimuli on concept formation. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 25 (4), pp 292-301. Language: FRENCH.
Claude Leclerc and Vaira Freibergs examined the influence of perceptual
and symbolic subliminal stimuli on concept formation.
Bruce Ledford conducted this study in order to determine the effects
of rheostatically controlled visual subliminals on the affective interrelations
of a learning task of subjects within a classroom setting.
Ledford, B.R. & Ledford, S.Y. (1985). The effects of preconscious cues upon the automatic activation of self-esteem selected middle school students. Requirement for Project 1246. Tucson Unified School District.
Ledford, B. R., L. Robison, et al. (1987). "The effects of preconscious visual symbolic and linguistic cues upon the academic achievement of college students." Imagination, Cognition & Personality 7(3): 251-264.
Tested the effects of preconscious visual clues on academic performance. Results found significance only for males in the study.
Lee, I. & Tyrer, P. (1980). Response of chronic agoraphobics to subliminal and supraliminal phobic motion pictures. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168 (1), pp 34-40. ISSN: 0022-3018.
This study was performed in order to investigate the responses of agoraphobics
to repeated presentations of a phobic motion picture.
A previous study had shown that both subliminal and supraliminal presentations produced significant improvements in phobic fear and avoidance.
This study found that the subliminal group found the procedure much less stressful than the subliminal group.
There was no consistent pattern in the physiological changes during the experiment, and the changes appeared to be independent of clinical response.
The results showed that repeated exposure to subliminal phobic motion pictures is not anxiety provoking to agoraphobic patients and so may be appropriate therapy for those unable to tolerate other forms of treatment.
Lee, I & Tyrer, P. & Horn, S. (1983). A comparison of subliminal, supraliminal and faded phobic cine-films in the treatment of agoraphobia. Electronic Facilities Design LTD, Reading, England. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, pp 356-361. ISSN: 0007-1250.
Leiter, E. (1974). A study of the effects of subliminal activation of merging fantasies in the differentiated and non-differentiated schizophrenics. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34 (8-B), pp 4022-4023.
Leiter, E. (1982). The effects of subliminal activation of aggressive and merging fantasies in differentiated and non-differentiated schizophrenics. The Bronx Psychiatric Center, New York, NY. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 22 (7), 21 pages. ISSN: 0348-3673.
Eli Leiter carried out this study in order to determine the effects
of the subliminal activation of aggressive and merging fantasies in differentiated
and non-differentiated schizophrenics.
The Adjective Rating Scale, a measure of sense of separateness, was used to obtain the criterion score for degree of differentiation.
Other more-general measures of differentiation from the rod-and-frame test, Embedded Figures Test, Rorschach and the Figure Drawing Test did not predict performance after the symbiotic condition.
Lehmann, A.G. & Busnel, R.G. (1979). Reduction of swimming time in mice through interaction of infrasound and alcohol. Lab de Physiologie Acoustique, Jouy-en-Josas, France. Psychopharmacology, 65 (1), pp 79-84. ISSN: 0033-3158.
Lempel, C. S. (1992). The effect of subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on the treatment of polysubstance abusers, Long Island U, Brooklyn Ctr, NY, US.
Lenz, S. (1989). The effects of subliminal auditory stimuli on academic learning and motor skills performance among police recruits. California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles, CA. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
Suzanne Lenz performed this study in order to explore the effects of
subliminal auditory tapes in a structured learning setting, focusing on
both motor and verbal learning.
All the subjects were given both pre- and post-tests in law and marksmanship.
The results showed that neither music alone nor music with subliminal messages played during law instruction affected the cognitive (i.e., law) learning of the recruits, or improved motor skills (i.e., marksmanship) performance.
Although this study was well structured in terms of design and protocol, and the results were accurately reported, a major flaw can be found in the technical design of the tapes. The subliminal messages were recorded at 40-50 db below the sound of the music, and as such are too low to be perceived.
Lenz, S. (1990). The effect of subliminal auditory stimuli on academic learning and motor skills performance among police recruits, California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles, US.
Leuschner, W., S. Hau, et al. (1994). "Disassociation and reassociation of subliminally induced stimulus material in drawings of dreams and drawings of waking free imagery." Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams 4(1): 1-27.
The cocnlusion of this study suggests that the visual processing of subliminal stimuli can be explained via a dissociation-reassociation hypothesis.
Levenson, R.W. (1983). Personality research and psychophysiology: General considerations. Indiana University, Bloomington. Journal of Research in Personality, 17 (1), pp 1-21. ISSN: 0092-6566.
Robert Levenson presents a general discussion of psychophysiological
methods in relationship to personality research for the investigator without
an extensive knowledge of psychophysiology.
Levy, M.A. (1985). The intimacy motive: A variable to predict responsiveness to subliminal symbiotic stimulation. Adelphi University, Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (7-B), p. 2314. ISSN: 0419-4209.
The results failed to support all three hypotheses, which suggests the possibility that no subliminal effects occurred whatsoever in the experiment.
Steven Levy describes ExpandoVision, a computer controlled television
device that flashes subliminal self-help messages on the television screen
during routine viewing of regular programs.
Lewis, A.J., Parker, J., DiLuigi, J., Datko, L.J. & Carlson, R.P. (1981-1982). Immunomodulation of delayed hypersensitivity to methylated bovine serum (MBSA) in mice using subliminal and normal sensitization procedures. Journal of Immunopharmacology, 3 (3-4), pp 289-307.
Lieberman, H.J. (1975). A study of the relationship between developmentally determined personality and associated thought styles and tachistoscopic exposure as reflected in conflict resolution. Pennsylvania State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 35 (11-B), pp 5670-5671.
Previous research suggests that variations in stimulus visibility (from
supraliminal to subliminal) parallels, in psychoanalytic terms, a conscious
to unconscious continuum, and a developmental hierarchy of different personality
and thought styles.
Lindeman, M. L. (1985). "Suggestion in education: The historical path of suggestopedia." Journal of Evolutionary Psychology 6(1-2): 107-118.
This article suggests that all forms of education include suggestion of some kind. Further, suggestion and suggestability are important roles in education.
Linehan, E.J. (1980). The effect of subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on college student self-disclosure in group counseling. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (01-A), p. 108.
Linehan, E.J. & O'Toole, J. (1982). Effect of subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on college student self-disclosure in group counseling. St. Clare's Hospital Community Mental Health Center, Industrial Employee Assistance Program, Denville, NJ. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29 (2), pp 151-157. ISSN: 0022-0167.
The subjects were divided into three groups, with each group being further subdivided in an experimental and a control group.
Before each group counselling session, the experimentals received the
subliminal message, "Mommy and I are one," and the controls received the
neutral message, "People are walking."
These results with the "Mommy" stimulus, together with previous findings, indicate that the subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies can enhance the effectiveness of therapeutic procedures of various kinds.
Litwack, T.R., Wiedemann, C.F. & Yager, J. (1979). The fear
of object loss, responsiveness to subliminal stimuli, and schizophrenic
psychopathology. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 167 (2),
pp 79-90. ISSN: 0022-3018.
The results showed that;
Locke, E. L. (1991). "The Vance decision: The future of subliminal communication." Law & Psychology Review 15: 375-394.
The process by which subliminal information affects behavior is outlined in this article about the Vance vs. Judas Priest case.
Lodl, C.M. (1981). The effects of subliminal stimuli of aggressive content upon the analytic/field independent cognitive style. Marquette University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (9 B), pp 3559-3560.
Lombard, J. (1979). Advertising. Elements: Translating theory into practice, 11 (1), pp 406.
Jim Lombard presents example of subliminal or indirect advertising in
the mass media.
Lorenzo, G.J. (1985). Subliminal stimulation and psychopathologic diagnosis. University Autonoma de Madrid, Facultad de Psicologia, Spain. Psiquis Revista de Psiquiatria, Psicologia y Psicosomatica, 6 (1), pp 30-40. ISSN: 0210-8348. Language: SPANISH.
In this article, Jose Gonzalez Lorenzo contends, on the basis of data
from several investigations, that external stimuli not in the subject's
awareness may cause a response of overt behavior, disorders of thinking,
affective orders, or other abnormalities.
Lorenzo, G.J. (1985). Influence of subliminal stimulation on perception. Revista de Psicologia General y Aplicada, 40 (5), pp 1019-1031.
This study evaluated three verbal stimuli related to profession. Statistical findings suggest that the subjects responses were determined by the subliminal information they received.
Lozanov, G. (1971) Suggestology. Sophia: Nauki Izkustvi
Lozanov, G. (1978). Suggestology and Outlines of Suggestopedia. New York: Gordon and Breach.
Georgi Lozanov discusses how he used subliminal audio messages to enhance learning abilities in language and mathematics.
Lynn, R.L. (1987). Relaxation: low intensity (subliminal) phrases versus instructional set. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (3-B), p. 882.
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