Peripheral Desk Reference - K
Kaley, H.W. (1970). The effects of subliminal stimuli and drive
on verbal responses and dreams. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts
International, 31 (4-B), p. 2284.
Kamiya, S., H. Tajika, et al. (1994). "Effects of subliminal
perception of words in explicit and implicit memory." Psychologia:
an International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 37(2): 72-80.
Kanthamani, H. and J. Palmer (1993). "A ganzfeld experiment with
"subliminal sending."." Journal of Parapsychology 57(3): 241-257.
This study examined the effectiveness of "subliminal sending" on the
ganzfield reception among pairs of subjects.
Kao, Y.-f. (1991). Subliminal processing: The spread of activation
in color priming, U Nevada, Reno, US.
Kaplan, R.B. (1976). The symbiotic fantasy as a therapeutic agent:
An experimental comparison of the effects of three symbiotic elements
on manifest pathology in schizophrenics. New York University. Dissertation
Abstracts International, 37 (3-B), pp 1437-1438.
Kaplan, R., Thornton, P. & Silverman, L. (1985). Further
data on the effects of subliminal symbiotic stimulation on schizophrenics.
Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 173 (11), pp 658-666.
Rosalind Kaplan, Patricia Thornton and Lloyd Silverman examined the
effects of activating unconscious symbiotic fantasies in schizophrenic
The subjects were divided into four groups and assessed for pathological
thinking, pathological non-verbal behavior and self-esteem before and
after exposure to experimental and control subliminal stimuli.
The control stimulus for all groups was the message "People are walking".
Each group was divided into two, with one half of each group being exposed
to verbal subliminal stimuli only and the other half to verbal plus congruent
picture subliminal stimuli.
The experimental messages were;
The "Mommy and I are one" message was the only one to produce adaptive behavior,
and did so on all three dependent variables.
a) "Mommy and I are one",
b) "Mommy is always with me",
c) "Mommy feeds me well", and
d) "I cannot hurt Mommy".
The results support the supposition that it is specifically symbiosis-related
gratifications that are ameliorative for schizophrenics.
Kaser, V.A. (1986). The effects of an auditory subliminal message
upon the production of images and dreams. Atascadero State Hospital, Central
Program Services, CA. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 174
(7), pp 397-407. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Vaughn Kaser conducted this study in order to investigate the effect that
an auditory subliminal message, produced by speeding up the rate at which
it was recorded, would have on the imagery and dreams of a group of normal
The auditory subliminal message was produced by speeding up a message
that was sung until it could not be consciously understood.
This message was mixed with a normal music recording and played to the
subjects in the experimental group.
The control group heard the normal music recording without the subliminal
Both groups were asked to produce a pretest drawing before the tapes were
played, an imagery drawing immediately after the tapes were played, and
a dream drawing of any dreams they might have that night.
A statistical analysis of blind ratings given to all the drawings by 2
art therapists indicated a significant difference between the dream drawings
and the imagery drawings of the experimental and the control group.
When the drawings were examined, the effect of the subliminal message
could be seen.
The results show that the auditory subliminal message did have an effect
upon the imagery and dreams of the subjects in the experimental group.
The findings suggest that the unconscious/preconscious mind is able to
perceive a recorded verbal message that cannot be consciously understood
at the high rate of speed at which it was recorded.
Katz, R.J. (1973). Subliminal perception and the creative preconscious.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 34 (4-B), p. 1751.
Robert Katz investigated the relationship between subliminal perception
and the creativity of highly creative and emotionally constricted subjects.
The subjects were divided into highly creative and emotionally constricted
groups on the basis of card VI, VIII and IX of the Rorschach test.
A subliminal slide of a "pink tree" was presented to the experimental
groups, while the control group were exposed to a blank slide.
All three groups were then asked to create a story and to describe the
physical environment in which their stories took place.
The responses were scored for the presence of literal reproductions of
the subliminal stimulus and for responses conceptually related to the
Two hypotheses were put forward;
The results clearly demonstrated that the creative group was superior to
the constricted group in the ability to make use of preconscious material
by incorporating either conceptually related responses or literal reproductions
of the experimental stimulus into their subsequent productions.
1) the creative group would produce a significantly greater number
of both literal reproductions of the subliminal stimulus and responses
conceptually related to the stimulus, and
2) the increase in the degree of reality relatedness demanded by
the structured condition would facilitate the production of literal
reproductions in the creative group by reducing the degree to which
the drive organization was involved in the formation of their creation.
The structured condition failed to facilitate the production of literal
Kaye, M.M. (1975). The therapeutic value of three merging stimuli
for male schizophrenics. Yeshiva University. Dissertation Abstracts
International, 36 (3-B), pp 1438-1439.
Melvin Kaye examined the therapeutic value of the subliminal presentation
of verbal messages, which were designed to arouse fantasies of merging
oneself with another, on hospitalized schizophrenics.
Keithler, M.A. (1981). The influence of the transcendental meditation
program and personality variables on auditory thresholds and cardio-respiratory
responding. Doctoral Dissertation, Washington University. Dissertation
Abstracts International, 42 (04-B), p. 1662.
Mary Anne Keithler conducted this study in order to determine the influence
of the transcendental meditation program and personality variables on
auditory thresholds and cardio respiratory responding.
Many studies have shown that the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program
improves perceptual ability, supposedly because regular practice of the
TM technique improves the ability to concentrate and expands the level
of conscious awareness.
Clements and Millstein (1977) found enhanced auditory thresholds (using
a von Bekesy audiometer) in a small sample of female sidhas (practitioners
of the TM Sidhi program) who had reported especially good experiences
with the Sidhi technique for enhancing hearing ability.
The present study was designed to determine if a larger sample of Sidhas
(ones not specially selected on the basis of their experiences) and a
group of non-Sidha TM practitioners would show lower auditory thresholds
than a group of non-TM practitioners.
The influence of response bias, personality, and central versus peripheral
effects on auditory thresholds were addressed.
To assess motivational influences, cardiac and respiratory activity were
measured and the effect of information processing requirements on physiological
The subjects were divided into three groups (Sidhas, TM only and control).
Three auditory threshold tests were given, two to determine peripheral
hearing ability, the method of limits (a bias-confounded measure), a forced
choice absolute threshold test (a bias-free measure) to determine central
For all tests, a one second 500 Hz tone was delivered binaurally through
Cardiac respiratory activity was measured during the tests and afterwards
subjects were asked to fill out a personality questionnaire (the EPQ)
and a rating scale concerning reactions to the session.
There was no significant differences found between groups for the two
forced choice threshold tests.
The method of limits, however, showed that the Sidhas had significantly
lower thresholds than the control subjects, implying a liberal response
bias for the TM subjects and a conservative one for the control subjects.
This may be related to greater familiarity with preconscious levels of
the mind (where subliminal perception may take place) for the TM subjects.
This result suggests that the issue of response bias needs to be considered
with specially selected Sidhas before Clements and Millstein's finding
can be accepted.
Little relationship was found between personality variables and threshold
measures, or between personality and TM.
The point of maximal cardia deceleration associated with the period of
auditory stimulation within a trial was found to be logically related
to the information processing demands of the tasks. This confirms the
theory that cardiac acceleration (after a period of deceleration associated
with the intake of sensory information) is associated with decision making
and task completion.
Cardiac deceleration associated with auditory stimulation was not found
to be greater at lower intensities, although respiratory reduction was.
Kelly, J.S. (1979). Subliminal embeds in print advertising: A
challenge to advertising ethics. Journal of Advertising, 8 (3),
pp 20-24. ISSN: 0091-3367.
J. Steven Kelly discusses the use of subliminal embeds in advertising.
In spite of an increase in public awareness, due to various news media
and consumer publications, the two books by Wilson Bryan Key and Vance
Packard's Hidden Persuaders, a rebuttal from the advertising community
regarding this activity has been nonexistent.
The implication behind the use of subliminal embeds in advertising is
that such methods invade the consumers' subconscious and intrude on their
In a study of college students, it was found that subliminal embeds in
advertisements did not produce significantly more recall of brands or
illustrations than did regular ads.
Kemp-Wheeler, S.M. & Hill, A.B. (1987). Anxiety response
to subliminal experience of mild stress. British Journal of Psychology,
78 (pt 3), pp 365-374.
Mild stress was induced by subliminal stimuli.
Kemp-Wheeler, S. M. (1988). The effects of subliminal stimulation:
Semantic priming and the arousal of anxiety, U Keele, England.
Kemp-Wheeler, S. M. and A. B. Hill (1988). "Semantic priming
without awareness: Some methodological considerations and replications."
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A(Human Experimental Psychology.
Vol 40): 671-692.
Semantic priming effects were obtained this study which presented verbal
stimuli at below the objective detection threshold.
Kemp-Wheeler, S. M. and A. B. Hill (1992). "Semantic and emotional
priming below objective detection threshold." Cognition & Emotion
Significant semantic priming effects were found consistently while emotional
priming effects were not obtained unless the target stimuli was preceded
by an emotionally aversive prime.
Kennedy, R.S. (1971). A comparison of performance on visual and
auditory monitoring tasks. Human Factors, 13 (2), pp 93-97. ISSN:
Key, W.B. (1973). Subliminal Seduction. Englewood Cliffs,
Wilson Bryan Key describes how advertisers use visual subliminals to
Key, W.B. (1976). Media Sexploitation. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Wilson Bryan Key discusses further ways in which the media users the
consumers fantasies, fears and intimate habits in order to manipulate
Key, W.B. (1980). Clam Plate Orgy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice
Wilson Bryan Key shows how advertisers use sex as the ultimate subliminal
weapon to persuade the consumer to buy their products.
Kihlstrom, J.F. (1987). The cognitive unconscious. University
of Arizona. Science, 237, pp 1445-1452.
John Kihlstrom discusses the unconscious, preconscious and subconscious.
Cognitive research in psychology reveals the impact of nonconscious mental
structures and processes on the individual's conscious experience, thought
Research on perceptual-cognitive and motoric skills indicates that they
are automized through experience, and thus rendered unconscious.
In addition, research on subliminal perception, implicit memory and hypnosis
indicates that events can affect mental functions even though they cannot
be consciously perceived or remembered.
These findings suggest a tripartite division of the cognitive unconscious
into truly unconscious mental processes operating on knowledge structures
that may themselves be preconscious or subconscious.
Kihlstrom, J. F., T. M. Barnhardt, et al. (1992). Implicit perception.
Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives.
T. S. P. Robert F. Bornstein, Guilford Press, New York, NY, US:
(from the chapter) the quest for subliminal perception has no meaning
unless the limen is defined in terms of what Cheesman and Merikle (1985)
have called the subjective threshold: "the detection level where subjects
claim not to be able to discriminate perceptual information at better
than chance level" / reliance on the objective threshold, "the level of
detectability where perceptual information is actually discriminated at
chance level" ...effectively rules the phenomenon of subliminal perception
out of existence / we (the authors) advocate abandoning the notion of
"subliminal" perception entirely, and with it all of the unfortunate psychophysical
implications of the concept of the limen / in its place we proffer the
concept of implicit perception, based on an analogy with the phenomenon
of implicit memory.
Kilbourne, W.E., Painton, S. & Ridley, D. (1985). The effect
of sexual embedding on responses to magazine advertisements. Sam Houston
State University. Journal of Advertising, 14 (2), pp 48-55. ISSN:
William Kilbourne, Scott Painton and Danny Ridley conducted two empirical
studies to assess the effectiveness of sexual embedding in advertising.
In Study 1 the subjects viewed and evaluated 2 advertisements (ads) with
embeds or 2 matched ads without embeds.
The results indicated that embedding was effective in raising attitudinal
evaluations of a liquor ad but not a cigarette ad.
In Study 2, galvanic skin response (GSR) measurements were taken on the
subjects while they viewed both versions (with and without embeds) of
The results indicated that embedding was effective in increasing GSR measurements
for the versions of the ads with embeds.
The results of both studies suggest that the view of sexual embeds in
magazine advertisements influences viewers' evaluation of the ads.
Kim, J.-o., K. Rhee, et al. (1984). "Semantic information processing
of Korean words." Korean Journal of Psychology 4(3): 185-200.
The authors of this study conclude that preconscious perception is independent
of associative strengths between probe and prime words and therefore suggest
support for Freud's hypothesis that multiple activations of associative
pathways occur with related unidentified stimuli.
Kimura, D. (1961). Cerebral dominance and the perception of verbal
Canadian Journal of Psychology, 15.
Kirkwood, B.J. (1987). Subliminal control of behavior: myth or miracle?
Department of Psychology, University of Auckland. New Zealand Medical
Journal, 100 (817), pp 69-70. ISSN: 0028-8446.
Klaine, J. (1980, July). Subliminal world. Peterson's Photographic
Magazine, 9 (8), p. 45.
Lake Forest News.
Klatz, R.M. (1986, July 18). Behavioral studies show subliminal tapes
aid smokers, athletes.
Klatz, R.M. (1987, Spring). Subliminal and psychological training
for maximum human performance. National Health and Medical Trends,
Kleespies, P. & Wiener, M. (1972). The "orienting reflex"
as an input indicator in "subliminal" perception. Perceptual &
Motor Skills, 35 (1), pp 103-110.
Klein G.S. & Holt, R.R. (1960). Problems and issues in current
studies of subliminal activation. In Festschrift for Gardner Murphy.
Eds. J.G. Peatman and E.L. Hartley. New York: Harper and Rowe.
Klein G.S., Spence, D.P. & Gourevitch, S. (1958). Cognition
without awareness: Subliminal influences upon conscious thought. Journal
of Abnormal Social Psychology, 54, pp 167-176.
Klein, S. & Moricz, E. (1969). A study of the effect of threshold
stimuli. Magyar Pszichologiai Szemle, 26 (2), pp 198-206.
Sandor Klein and Eva Moricz found that a subliminal stimulus inserted
into a 16-mm filmstrip was more frequently perceived by males than by
Kleinbrook, W.L. (1985). Pastoral considerations regarding the
use of subliminal psychodynamic activation. Drew University Dissertation
Abstracts International, 45 (8-A), p. 2555. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Klinger, M. R. and A. G. Greenwald (1994). Preferences need no
inferences?: The cognitive basis of unconscious mere exposure effects.
The heart's eye: Emotional influences in perception and attention.
S. K. Paula M. Niedenthal, Academic Press, Inc, San Diego, CA, US: 67-85.
(from the chapter) (in 1980, R. B. Zajonc postulated) that persons can
have an emotional reaction to a stimulus without any corresponding cognitive
reaction / Zajonc suggested that emotional responses may be produced by
a system that is completely independent from cognitive processes / principal
empirical support for Zajonc's thesis came from results of several experiments
on the subliminal mere exposure effect / he interpreted the effect as
evidence that affective responses can be elicited by stimuli that have
been repeatedly encountered, but that are not consciously detectable ///
review research on the mere exposure effect and subliminal mere exposure
effect / consider the attempts to account for these findings in theory
/ present a program of research that has strong implications for an explanation
of this effect / in so doing we point to limitations of past theories
of mere exposure and extend them to account for our recent findings ///
testing the memory-based models of subliminal mere exposure / tests of
the memory attribution model.
Klinger, M. R. and A. G. Greenwald (1995). "Unconscious priming
of association judgments." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning,
Memory, & Cognition 21(3): 569-581.
Evidience is presented that suggests that spreading activation is the
important mechanism responsible for unconscious priming. Researchers obtained
a statistically significant increase in the priming effect for subjects
who could not detect the prime than for subjects who could partially detect
Koizumi, K., Ishikawa, T. & Brooks, C.M. (1973). The existence
of facilitatory axon collaterals in neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus.
Brain Research, 63, pp 408-413. ISSN: 0006-8993.
Kooyman, R. K. (1989). An investigation of the effect of music upon
the academic, affective, and attendance profiles of selected fourth grade
students, U Nevada, Las Vegas, US.
Kolers, P.A. (1972). Subliminal stimulation in simple and complex
cognitive processes. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International,
33 (3-B), p. 1269.
Kostandov, E.A. (1967). The effect of changes in the functional
state of the cortex and activating systems of the brain stem on detection
of weak auditory signals. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat, 17 (4), pp 634-642.
ISSN: DYAS-0000. Language: RUSSIAN.
Kostandov, E.A. (1968). The effect of unrecognized emotional
verbal stimuli. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat., 18 (3), pp 371-380. ISSN:
DYAS-0000. Language: RUSSIAN.
Kostandov, E.A. (1969). The effect of emotional excitation on
auditory threshold and subliminal reactions. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat.,
19 (3), pp 462-70. ISSN: DYAS-0000. Language: RUSSIAN.
Kostandov, E.A. (1970). Perception and subliminal reactions to unrecognized
stimuli. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat., 20 (2), pp 441-449. ISSN: DYAS-0000.
Kostandov, E.A. (1971). Evoked potentials of the human cerebral
cortex to recognized and unrecognized auditory signals. Neirofiziologiia,
3 (2), pp 115-22. Language: RUSSIAN.
Kostandov, E.A. (1973). The effect of negative emotions on perception.
Central Scientific Research Inst. of Legal Psychiatry, Moscow, USSR. Voprosy
Psikhologii, 19 (6), pp 60-72. Language: RUSSIAN.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of emotional content
of words on their recognition thresholds.
The subjects were all mentally disturbed because of severe conflicts experienced
in the life situation.
Neutral and emotional words were presented to subjects while their EEG
and GSR were recorded.
The emotional words used were pertinent to subject's particular conflict.
The experiment was run under 3 conditions: before, during and after the
injection of anticholingeric agent.
The results, as recorded by the GSR and EEG, showed that there was a higher
verbal recognition thresholds for the emotional words, along with subliminal
The emotional words produced an increase in amplitude and a decrease in
the latency in the late positive component of CEP from the occipital region
of the brain.It is conjectured that this was caused by nonspecific afferent
signals from the limbic system.
The possible mechanism whereby the limbic system may change recognition
thresholds of emotional words is discussed.
Kostandov, E.A. (1977). Cortical evoked potentials to emotional
words (supraliminal and subliminal). Serbsky Central Research Inst. of
Forensic Psychiatry, Moscow, USSR. Activitas Nervosa Superior, 19 (4),
pp 301-302. ISSN: 0001-7604.
Kostandov, E.A. (1985). Currents significance of the work of
G.C. Gershuni on subsensory reactions. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat., 36
(6), pp 1014-1021. ISSN: 0044-4677.
Kostandov, E.A. & Arzumanov, YuL. (1978). Conditioned reflex mechanism
of unconscious decision making. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat, 28 (3),
Kostandov, E.A. & Arzumanov, Y. L. (1986). The influence
of subliminal emotional words on functional hemispheric asymmetry. International
Journal of Psychophysiology, 4 (2), pp 143 147.
The aim of this study was to examine the interhemispheric differences
in the process of perception of subliminal verbal stimuli, by recording
the P300 component of the evoked potential over both hemispheres.
Neutral and emotional words were presented subliminally, at random, to
the left or right visual fields.
The results showed that, in response to an unrecognized emotional word,
the amplitude of P300 wave increased diffusely over both hemispheres as
compared to that of the neutral word, with no change in interhemispheric
The interhemispheric difference did change considerably in the presence
of an "unaccountable" emotion caused by a subliminal word. This suggests
a unilateral activation of the right hemisphere and a predominant role
of this hemisphere in the cortical organization of the unconscious function
Kostandov, E. A. and Y. L. Arzumanov (1988). "Physiological mechanisms
of "unaccountable" negative emotions. 2nd European International Association
for Interdisciplinary Study of Higher Nervous Functions Conference (1987,
Magdeburg, German Democratic Republic)." Activitas Nervosa Superior
Kostandov, E., Arzumanov, J., Vazhnova, T., Reshchikova, T. &
Shostakovich, G. (1980). Conditional mechanisms of decision making.
Pavlovs Journal of Biological Science, 15 (4), pp 142-150.
Kostandov, E.A. & D'iachkoya, G.I. (1971). Evoked potentials
of the human cerebral cortex to recognized and unrecognized auditory signals.
Neirofiziologiia (USSR), 3 (2), pp 115-122. ISSN: 0028-2561.
Kothera, L. M. (1990). A reinvestigation of the subliminal psychodynamic
activation dart throwing paradigm: The role of information processing,
Long Island U, Brooklyn Ctr, NY, US.
Kothera, L., R. Fudin, et al. (1990). "Effects of subliminal
psychodynamic activation on dart throwing performance: Another nonreplication."
Perceptual & Motor Skills 71(3, Pt 1): 1015 1022.
Subliminal psychodynamic activation messages failed to improve dart
throwing ability in this study.
Kotze, H. F. and A. T. Moller (1990). "Effect of auditory subliminal
stimulation on GSR." Psychological Reports 67(3, Pt 1): 931-934.
This study showed that auditory subliminal stimuli could effect a significant
increase in GSR. 38 undergraduates were exposed subliminally to emotional
words while their galvanic skin response (GSR) was monitored. Emotional
words such as abortion, syphilis and murder were used.
Kotze, H. F. and A. T. Moller (1991). "Subliminal stimulation,
choice behavior and some personality correlates of subliminal sensitivity."
Perceptual & Motor Skills 72(1): 315-322.
This study investigated aspects of choice behavior. Results failed to
show a positive correlation between symbol choice and neutral message.
The researchers suggest that the symbol choice may have itself been neutral
since it was not need or motivation oriented.
Koufopoulos, R.M. (1987). A study of introjective depression
using the subliminal psychodynamic activation method. Dissertation
Abstracts International, 48 (3-B), p. 880.
Koulack, D. & Goodenough, D.R. (1976). Dream recall and dream
recall failure. An arousal retrieval model. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg,
Canada. Psychological Bulletin, 83 (5), pp 975-984.
Koulack, D. & Goodenough, D.R. (1977). A model for dream-recall
on wakening: A proposal to account for memory faults in the recall of
dreams. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Annales Medica-Psychologiques,
1 (1), pp 35-42. ISSN: 00034487. Language: FRENCH.
In this article David Koulack and Donald Goodenough propose an arousal/retrieval
model to account for difficulties in sleep learning and dream recall.
The model is based on two-stage memory theory, which assumes that information
processing in a short-term memory state facilities subsequent retrieval
from long-term memory storage.
The authors propose that the effectiveness of processing of target materials
is impaired during sleep.
Dreams and information contained in stimulus presentations to a sleeping
person very likely can only be retrieved if an awakening occurs during
the life of the short term memory trance.
The authors further propose that experiences occurring during or shortly
after awakening compete with the target material for space in the limited-capacity
processing system, with the most salient of the set favored in the competition.
Interference and repression effects are assumed as additional factors
in retrieval from long term storage.
Kramer, J. (1986). Psychic Guide. In Subliminal Persuasion,
Becoming All You Can Be, pp. 33-36.
Kreitler, H. & Kreitler, S. (1973). Subliminal Perception
and extrasensory perception. Tel Aviv University, Israel. Journal of
Parapsychology, 37 (3), pp 163-188.
Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler conducted this study in order to
The results indicated that ESP messages are most effective when they contradicted
information conveyed by subliminal stimuli and were communicated by a transmitting
a) which conditions facilitate ESP, eg.
i) absence of other stimuli,
ii) presence of weak stimuli conveying the same information
as ESP, or
iii) the presence of weak stimuli contradicting ESP, and
b) the effectiveness of ESP when the sender is merely thinking
about the target he is trying to "send" or is actively trying to
Kreitler, H. & Kreitler, S. (1974). Optimization of experimental
ESP results. Harvard University, Carpenter Center. Journal of Parapsychology,
38 (4), pp 383-392.
In this article, Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler stated that the
comparative analysis of 4 ESP experiments showed that ESP enhanced neither
supraliminal or subliminal inputs, nor did it strengthen a subject's dominant
ESP effects were most manifest when the contents of the ESP message differed
from that of concomitant external and internal stimuli.
From the results, it was concluded that the external and internal stimuli
constitute the noise background against which the ESP signal has to be
The authors suggest that, in order to strengthen the detectability of
ESP signals and thus increase the possibility of successful ESP experimentation,
there should also be experimental control of response bias and guessing
habits, in addition to the already traditional reduction of external stimulation
in ESP experiments.
In particular messages should be selected which differ considerably in
their contents from the contents of whatever external and internal stimuli
may be occurring at the same time.
Krishna, S.R. (1985). A review of the PA India conference. Andhra
University, Visakhapatnam, India. Journal of Parapsychology, 49 (3),
pp 249-255. ISSN: 0022-3387.
In this article, Shanti Krishna discusses research in parapsychology,
including Western and Eastern psi perspectives.
Included in the discussion is ESP and subliminal perception.
Krosnick, J. A., A. L. Betz, et al. (1992). "Subliminal conditioning
of attitudes." Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 18(2):
Two studies involving 162 undergraduate students demonstrated subliminal
conditioning of attitudes without awareness of antecedents. Subliminal
photographs affected attitudes and beliefs about personality characteristics
of the target person.
Kruse, P. Some suggestions about suggestion and hypnosis: a radical
constructivist view. In Suggestion and Suggestibility, Theory and Research
by Gheorghiu, V.A., Netter, P., Eysenck, H.J. & Rosenthal (Eds). Springer
Peter Kruse makes the case of the under-researched and often ignored
power of suggestive influences in all forms of communication and every
Kruse applies the reality criteria and offers epistomological consideration
for the value of suggestion in research, theory and therapy.
Kruse, P. & Stadler, M. (1990). Stability and instability
in cognitive systems: multistability, suggestion, and psychomotor interaction.
Department of Psychology, University of Bremen. Springer Series in
Synergetics, 45, pp 201-215.
The focus of this paper is on approaching brain/mind in the interaction
between stability/instability associating mental events with neural events.
The authors summarize presented facts and ideas applying a self-organization
theory to cognitive phenomena in two main areas;
1) cognitive instability, and
2) instability in cognitive systems.
Kruse, P., Stadler, M., & Kobs, M. Suggestion and perceptual
instability: auditory subliminal influences, a pilot study (1991). Department
of Psychology, University of Bremen.
In this study the researchers demonstrated the influence of a subliminal
stimuli delivered via an audio subliminal tape prepared using what Kruse
dubbed the "Taylor Method" on the instability on perception. This method
employs the simultaneous delivery of forward and reverse spoken affirmations.
The forward messages are permissive, such as, "It's okay to be good,"
and the reverse message, supposedly directed at the right hemisphere,
"I am good."
Kunzendorf, R.G., Lacourse, P. & Lynch, B. (1986-1987). Hypnotic
hypermnesia for subliminally encoded stimuli: state dependent memory for
"unmonitored" sensations. Imagination, Cognition & Personality,
6 (4), pp 365-377.
This study examined the encoding of subliminal and hypnotic perceptions.
Two experiments involving 145 undergraduates demonstrated that subliminal
information processing was enhanced by the hypnotic state.
Kunzendorf, R. G. and L. Montisanti (1989). "Subliminal activation
of hypnotic responses: Subconscious realms of mind versus subconscious
modes of mentation." Imagination, Cognition & Personality 9(2):
This study found that deeply hypnotized subjects were able to recognize
Kunzendorf, R. G., M. Jesses, et al. (1990). "Subliminal activation
of intrapsychic conflicts: Subconscious realms of mind vs subconscious
processes of mentation." Imagination, Cognition & Personality 10(2):
80 male university students heard the message, "It's wrong to crush
daddy," both stereophonically and binaurally. The stereophonic listening
procedure interrupted mathematical problem solving while the binaural
procedure did not.
Kunzendorf, R. G. and W. Butler (1992). "Apperception revisited:
"Subliminal" monocular perception during the apperception of fused random-dot
stereograms." Consciousness & Cognition: an International Journal
This study confirmed Kunzendorf's redefinition of binocular apperception
and source monitoring theory.
Kwawer, J.S. (1972). An experimental study of psychoanalytic
theories of overt male homosexuality. New York University. Dissertation
Abstracts International, 32 (10-B), p. 6053.
Jay Solomon Kwawer designed this study in order to provide an experimental
evaluation of two aspects of the psychoanalytic theory of overt male homosexuality;
The subjects were shown a tachistopic presentation of verbal and pictorial
stimuli at a subliminal level.
a) that homosexual symptoms are related to oedipal fantasies, and
b) homosexuality is related to a wish for a symbiotic attachment
The three conditions used were;
The dependent variables were designed to assess changes in homosexual manifestations
as a function of subliminal presentation of the experimental stimuli.
i) a subliminal stimulus designed to trigger incestuous fantasies
ii) a subliminal stimulus designed to trigger a fantasy of symbiotic
attachment to mother.
iii) a neutral control stimulus.
A difference which could be significant was found for the incest condition
on a measure directly tapping the degree of homosexual attraction to other
At the level of intensity and exposure used, the subjects were unable to
discriminate between stimuli on a better than chance basis.
Kwawer, J.S. (1977). Male homosexual psychodynamics and the Rorschach
test. Journal for Personal Assessment, 41 (1), pp 10-18. ISSN:
Jay Soloman Kwawer discusses the contradictory findings regarding Wheeler's
Rorschach content signs of male homosexuality.
It is suggested that the negative findings may have resulted from a focus
on homosexual populations characterized by minimal arousal of underlying
A hypothesis was put forward, which stated that activating these unconscious
psychodynamics would enhance the discriminative power of the Wheeler signs.
An earlier study was reviewed where Inkblot protocols obtained from matched
groups of homosexuals and heterosexuals under two experimental conditions
involving subliminal exposure of either;
1) an incest-related, or
2) a neutral control stimulus were scored for Wheeler signs.
It was found that the incest condition brought about a significantly
greater incidence of the signs in homosexual records only. This
suggests that the intensification of unconscious incest wishes stimulates
homosexual reactions, consonant with psychoanalytic formulation.