Truth About Subliminal Programs
Choices and Illusions
Peripheral Desk Reference - H
Beverly Habeck performed this study in order to determine to what extent,
if any, the variables gender, hemispheric preference, semanticity, message
lateralization and/or their interactions influenced children's susceptibility
to auditory subliminal stimuli as measured by subjects rating their internal
and external affective environments.
Haberstroh, J. (1984). Can't ignore subliminal ad charges. Advertising Age, 55 (61), pp 3, 42, 44. ISSN: 0001-8899.
Jack Haberstroh discusses the work of Wilson Bryan Key.
Halpren, S. (1985) Sound Health, San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Steven Halpren asserts that unheard sounds and vibrations are as important as the ones which are perceived.
Hamilton, S.B. & Bornstein, P.H. (1979). Broad-spectrum behavioral approach to smoking cessation: Effects of social support and paraprofessional training on the maintenance of treatment effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, pp 598-600.
Hansen, J. R. (1988). The relationship of subliminally activated psychodynamic conflict to anorexic performance on a lexical decision task, State U New York, Buffalo, US.
Hansen, P. (1984). Subliminal perception. Paper presented to
International Motivation Conference. Canberra, Australia.
Hardaway, R.A. (1986). (Cited in Bower, N., 1986, p. 156) University of Southern California in Los Angeles.
Richard Hardaway, in an unpublished statistical analysis of 68 studies using Silverman's "Mommy and I are one" subliminal message discovered a small, statistically significant difference in behavioral improvement for people exposed to the message.
Hardaway, R.A. (1987). Facts and fantasies in subliminal psychodynamic activation: a qualitative analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (12-b, part 1), pp 5054.
Hardaway, R. A. (1990). "Subliminally activated symbiotic fantasies: Facts and artifacts." Psychological Bulletin 107(2): 177-195.
A review procedure correcting statistical artifacts using a meta-analysis method showed small but significant effects from the use of the symbiotic "Mommy" message.
Hardy, G.R. & Legge, D. (1968). Cross-modal induction of changes in sensory thresholds. University College, London, UK. Quarterly Journal of Experiment Psychology, 20 (1), pp 20 29.
Two experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that threshold
changes induced by emotional stimulation are mediated centrally.
Harrison, R.H. (1970). Effect of subliminal shock conditioning on recall. Boston University. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 75 (1), pp 19-29.
Robert Harrison presented words at chance recognition levels and paired
them with either the abrupt initiation or cessation of shock conditioning
Hart, L. (1973). The effects of noxious subliminal stimuli on the modification of attitudes toward alcoholism: A pilot study. Boston City Hospital, MA. British Journal of Addiction, 68 (2), pp 87-90.
Hasher, L. & Zacks, R.T. (1979). Automatic and effortful processes in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 108, pp 356-388.
Haspel, K.C. & Harris, R.S. (1982). Effect of tachistoscopic stimulation of subconscious oedipal wishes on competitive performance: A failure to replicate. Kent County Mental Health Center, Warwick, RI. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91 (6), pp 437-443. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Katherine Haspel and Robert Harris studied the effects of subconscious
oedipal wishes on competitive performance.
Hayden, B. & Silverstein, R. (1983). The effects of tachistoscopic oedipal stimulation on competitive dart throwing. Brown University. Psychological Research Bulletin, Lund University, 23 (1). ISSN: 0348-3673.
Brian Hayden and Robert Silverstein studied the effects of subliminal
psychodynamic activation on competitive dart-throwing.
Hayes, K. C., R. D. Allatt, et al. (1992). "Reinforcement of subliminal flexion reflexes by transcranial magnetic stimulation of motor cortex in subjects with spinal cord injury." Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology: Electromyography & Motor Control 85(2): 102-109.
Determined low intensity electrical stimui could facilitate subliminal motor evoked potentials.
Heflin, S. S. (1991). The effect of selected subliminal suggestion upon the self-confidence of undergraduate students, East Texas State U, US.
Heidorn, R., Jr. (May 16, 1988). Jail tries subliminal, and disputed technique. The Philadelphia Inquirer, pp 1-B, 3-B.
This article describes a 6-month trial of subliminal tapes for reducing
absenteeism among sheriff's officers and correctional officers.
Heilbrun, K.S. (1980a). The effects of subliminally presented oedipal stimuli on competitive performance. University of Texas, Austin. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (4-B), p. 1506.
Kirk Heilbrun examined the effects of subliminally presented oedipal stimuli on competitive performance.
Heilbrun, K.S. (1980b). Silverman's subliminal psychodynamic activation: A failure to replicate. University of Texas, Austin. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89 (4), pp 560-566. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Kirk Heilbrun tested Silverman's report that subliminally presented
stimuli, designed to increase or decrease oedipal conflict, can affect
Heilbrun, K.S. (1982). Reply to Silverman. Florida State University, Tallahassee. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91 (2), pp 134-135. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Kirk Heilbrun replies to comments made by Silverman regarding the author's failure to replicate Silverman's work on subliminal symbiotic stimulation as an adjunct to systematic desensitization.
Henke, K., T. Landis, et al. (1993). "Subliminal perception of pictures in the right hemisphere." Consciousness & Cognition: an International Journal 2(3): 225-236.
Using a tacistoscope the researchers demonstrated that a picture can be perceived below the level of awareness, but only the right hemispher can perceive them and make use of the perception.
Henke, K., T. Landis, et al. (1994). "Subliminal perception of words and faces." International Journal of Neuroscience 75(3-4): 181-187.
This study showed that words presented subliminal to the left hemsiphere
influenced decisions by men but not by women.
Henley, S.H. (1975). Cross modal effects of subliminal verbal stimuli. University College, London, UK. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 16 (1), pp 30-36.
Sue Henley conducted a cross model version of an experiment by C.J.
Smith et al on the effects of subliminal auditory cue words upon judgements
of a supraliminal visual stimulus.
Henley, S.H. (1975). Responses to homophones as a function of cue words on the unattended channel. University College, London, UK. British Journal of Psychology, 67 (4), pp 559-567.
Sue Henley tested a prediction based on the model of attention advanced
by Dixon (1971), that the responses to homophones presented to one ear,
at supraliminal intensities, would be influenced by subliminal cue words
presented to the other ear.
Henley, S.H. (1984). Unconscious perception revisited: A comment on Merikle's (1982) paper. University of London, University College, England. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 22 (2), pp 121-124. ISSN: 0090-5054.
Sue Henley states that, contrary to P.M. Merikle's implications, the
case for unconscious perception does not stand or fall with evidence from
the backward masking studies that are the focus of his criticisms.
Henley, S.H., & Dixon, N.F. (1974). Laterality differences in the effect of incidental stimuli upon evoked imagery. British Journal of Psychology, 65 (4), pp 529-536. ISSN: 0007-1269.
Henley, S.H. & Dixon, N.F. (1976). Preconscious processing in schizophrenics: An exploratory investigation. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 49 (2), pp 161-166. ISSN: 0007-1129.
Herrick, R.M. (1973). Increment thresholds for multiple identical flashes in the peripheral retina. U.S. Naval Air Development Center, Warminster, PA. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 63 (10), pp 1261-1265.
Robert Herrick performed this experiment to determine the light detection
threshold for various numbers of subliminal flashes.
Hess, J. (1981). Subliminal suggestion during anesthesia to control postoperative complications. (Letter). AANA Journal, 49 (2), pp 209-210. ISSN: 0094-6354.
In this letter to AANA Journal, John Hess describes how subliminal suggestions
can be used during Innovar -nitrous oxide anesthesia to control postoperative
complications, most notably pain and nausea.
Higgins, K. (1983). Marketers give quality image to generics to improve sales. Marketing News, 17 (23), p 4. ISSN: 0025-3790,
Kevin Higgins discusses the ways by which Oriove Enterprises, is fighting
the problem of marketing generic drugs.
Higginson, G.D. (1926). The visual apprehension of movement under successive retinal excitations. American Journal of Psychology, 37, pp 76-77.
In this article, Glenn Higginson describes the early use of the Dodge tachistoscope in the psychology laboratory.
Hill, A. (1993). "Non-conscious processes and semantic image profiling." Journal of the Market Research Society 35(4): 315-323
Discusses the use of subliminal perception in advertising.
Hines, K.S. (1978). Subliminal psychodynamic activation of oral dependency conflicts in a group of hospitalized male alcoholics. Memphis State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38 (11-B), p. 4123.
Hobbs, S.R. (1984). The effects of subliminal stimulation of oedipal and symbiotic gratification fantasies on racial attitudes. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (3 B), p. 1018. ISSN: 0419-4209.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the unconscious
oedipal fantasy on racial prejudice, and also to explore the influence
of the symbiotic gratification fantasy on racial attitudes.
Hodorowski, L. (1986). The symbiotic fantasy as a therapeutic agent: An experimental comparison of the effects of four symbiotic contexts on manifest pathology in differentiated schizophrenics. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (8-B), p. 2810. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Lenore Hodorowski conducted this experiment to determine the efficacy of pictorial merging contexts for subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies as a therapeutic modality for differentiated schizophrenics.
Hoffman, J.S. (1986) Review of the subliminal psychodynamic activation method. Doctor of Psychology Research Paper, Biola University, California.
Janice Hoffman performed this study in order to determine the validity
of the criticisms regarding the use of subliminal psychodynamic activation
(SPA), and also to ascertain the potential usefulness of SPA method for
testing theoretical constructs such as intrapsychic conflict and wishes
Hollingworth, M. (1985, January 30). Subliminal tapes halve thefts in chain store. Retail World, p 14.
Hollingworth reported two research studies where subliminal messages
reduced theft considerably.
Holmes, D. A. (1991). Effects of subliminal psychodynamic activation, U Oklahoma, US.
Holtzman, D. (1975). Recall and importations on a word test primed
by a subliminal stimulus. Wayne State University. Dissertation Abstracts
International, 36 (5-B), p. 2473.
The results indicated that the high oral subjects do not import nor remember significantly more oral regressive words.
There was however a significant interaction between the subliminal variable and the kinds of words recalled from the list, in that the subjects who received subliminal stimulation recalled more primitive than conceptual words.
Hovsepian, W. & Quatman, G. (1978). Effects of subliminal stimulation of masculinity femininity ratings of a male model. Xavier University, OH. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 46, (1), pp 155-161. ISSN: 0031-5125.
William Hovsepian and Gerald Quatman tested the effects of subliminal
stimulation on masculinity-femininity ratings of a male model.
The results gave no significant difference in ratings among the groups, which indicated that subliminal stimulation did not influence masculinity-femininity value-norm-anchor judgments.
There were no significant differences in the reported perception of additional stimuli or the tendency to be relaxed among the 4 groups.
However, subjects who received the "masculine" message and reported that they were more relaxed did tend to rate the model higher in masculinity.
Hull, E.I. (1976). Ego states characteristics of enhanced utilization of subliminal registrations. University of Chicago. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (4-B), pp 1903-1904.
Michael Hutchison discusses new tools and techniques for brain growth and mind expansion.
Hudesman, J., W. Page, et al. (1992). "Use of subliminal stimulation to enhance learning mathematics." Perceptual & Motor Skills 74(3, Pt 2): Spec Issue 1219-1224.
Subjects who had failed the mathematics portion of university skills assessment test were exposed to the merging message. Subjects in the experimental group improved while no improvement was found in the control group.
Hudesman, J. and W. Page (1993). "Reply to Fudin's (1993-sub(B)) comments on Hudesman and Page's response to Fudin's (1993-sub(A)) comments on Hudesman, Page, and Rautiainen's subliminal psychodynamic activation experiment." Perceptual & Motor Skills 76(3, Pt 2): 1097 1098.
Hudesman, J. and W. Page (1993). "Reply to Fudin's comments on Hudesman, Page, and Rautianen's experiment on the use of subliminal psychodynamic activation to enhance mathematics learning." Perceptual & Motor Skills 76(3, Pt 1): 733-734.
Hylton, R.L. (1979). A comparison of the effects of aural arousal on the verbal learning of normal and learning disabled elementary school pupils. Doctoral dissertation, St. John's University, NY. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (3-B), p. 1393.
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