Truth About Subliminal Programs
Choices and Illusions
Peripheral Desk Reference - D
D'Adamo, M. V. (1989). Use of subliminal symbiotic stimulation and humorous depiction of oral aggression as adjuncts in the inpatient treatment of anorexia and bulimia, Long Island U Brooklyn Ctr, US.
D'Agostino, P. R. (1991). "Spontaneous trait inferences: Effects of recognition instructions and subliminal priming on recognition performance." Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 17(1): 70-77.
This study showed that the subliminal presentation of primes decreased the recognition accuracy for implicit traits but only under a certain condition.
Dagenbach, D., T. H. Carr, et al. (1989). "Task-induced strategies and near-threshold priming: Conscious influences on unconscious perception." Journal of Memory & Language 28(4): 412 443.
Finding suggest different strategies for encoding and retrieving information semantically primed in lexical decision processes presented under conditions of near threshold semantic priming.
Dauber, R.B. (1984). Subliminal psychodynamic activation in depression: On the role of autonomy issues in depressed college women. Dutton Counseling Center, Morristown, NJ. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93 (1), pp 9-18. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Richard Dauber used the subliminal psychodynamic activation method in
2 experiments to study the effects of messages related to autonomy on
36 depressed (Beck Depression Inventory Score >=10) female undergraduates.
Davis, P. & Silver M.J. (1971). Ellipse discrimination: A psychophysical task useful for studying incidental stimulation. Medfield Foundation, Mass. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 32 (1), pp 95-97. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Dean, D. & Nash, C.B. (1967). Coincident Plethysmograph results under controlled conditions. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 44 (731), pp 1-14.
This study reports on a subject who gave plethysmographic responses
which coincided with stimulations given to an agent in an adjoining room,
suggestive of mental telepathy. Other similar experiments are also reported.
DeChenne, J.A. (1976). An experimental study to determine if
a task involving psychomotor and problem solving skills can be taught
subliminally. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Dissertation
Abstracts International, 37 (4-A), p. 1947.
Melvin De Fleur and Robert Petranoff examined the effect of subliminal television broadcasts.
De Houwer, J., F. Baeyens, et al. (1994). "Verbal evaluative conditioning with undetected US presentations." Behaviour Research & Therapy 32(6): 629-633.
Positive, negative and neutral words were presented in this study to subjects unaware of backward masked subliminal pairing. Results showed a positive correlation between paired words where the back masked stimuli was present.
De Martino, C.R. (1969). The effects of subliminal stimulation as a function of stimulus content, drive arousal and priming and defense against drive. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts, 29 (12-B), p. 4843.
Claude Robert de Martino undertook this study in order to demonstrate:
A comparison of the mean pre and post scores on the Adjective Check Mood List showed that insulting the subjects made them feel more hostile and anxious. Priming, however, had no effect on the subjects' feelings.
Both the discrimination and detection procedures indicated that the "kill" and "tell" stimuli were subliminal.
Recognition was a more sensitive response measure than recall.
With recognition as the response measure, a subliminal effect was found for both the aggressive and the neutral subliminal stimuli under neutral drive conditions. The magnitude of this effect was significantly greater under priming conditions.
Priming enhanced the effects of neutral subliminal stimuli, but inhibited the effects of the aggressive subliminal stimulus.
The effects of the aggressive subliminal stimulus were carried by subjects who described themselves as aggressive on the Buss-Durkee Inventory, whereas the subjects who described themselves as not aggressive showed a negative or no effect. This trend was reversed with a neutral subliminal stimulus.
Devalle, D. A. (1989). Discrimination without awareness, U Wales, Wales.
Deviatkina, T.A., Tarasenko, L.M., Bbyreva, L.E., Sergienko, N.G. & Voskresenskii, O.N. (1985). Lipid peroxidation in tissues during subliminal electrostimulation of limbic system structures in the brain. Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med., 100 (10), pp 412-414.
Dillingham, S. (1987, September 14). Inaudible messages making a noise. Insight, pp 44-45.
Susan Dillingham reports on the success of subliminal self-help tape
Diaz Lopez, A. and E. Taylor, "Illness as a Behavioral Strategy." Proceeding from the International Psychiatric Congress, Mexico City, Sept. 1998.
Research findings from three government funded studies using subliminal audio cassettes developed by Eldon Taylor using the so-called "Taylor Method" were reported. Three studies covering the areas of chronic dental anxiety, smoking cessation and weight loss resulted in significant improvements for subjects in all categories. New findings in PNI research are discussed. A comprehensive theoretical is offered.
Dixon, N.F. (1956). Symbolic associations following subliminal
stimulation. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 37.
Dixon, N.F. (1958b). The effect of subliminal stimulation upon autonomic and verbal behavior. Journal Of Abnormal Social Psychology, 57.
Dixon, N.F.(1964). Communication without awareness: Implications of subliminal perception.Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 8.
Dixon, N.F. (1968). "Perception without awareness": A reply to K.W. Banreti-Fuchs. University of Adelaide, Australia. Acta Psychology, Amsterdam, 28 (2), pp 171-180. ISSN: 0001-6918.
A study by Banreti-Fuchs to determine the verbal responses on subliminal
stimuli, support the view that it is very easy to prevent weak stimuli
having an effect upon behavior. As such they do not constitute a fair
test of the original hypothesis.
Dixon, N.F. (1971). Subliminal Perception: The Nature of a Controversy, London: McGraw-Hill.
Dixon, N.F. (1979). Subliminal perception and parapsychology: Points of contact. University of London, University College, England. Parapsychology Review, 10 (3), pp 1-6. ISSN: 0031-1804.
Norman Dixon argues that parapsychological phenomena and subliminal perception may depend on the same underlying process.
Dixon, N.F. (1981a). The conscious/unconscious interface: Contributions to an understanding. University of London, University College, England. Lund University: Psychological Research Bulletin, 21 (5). ISSN: 0348-3673.
Norman Dixon states that there is hardly a single finding from subliminal
perception, microgenesis and sleep and dream research, that does not implicate
a 2-way interaction between sensory inflow, emotional appraisal, and the
unconscious memory storage systems of the human brain.
Norman Dixon discusses preconscious processing.
Dixon, N.F. (1981c). Psychosomatic disorder: a special case of subliminal perception? In Psychosomatic Approaches to Medicine, 1, Behavioral Science Foundations, Eds. M.J. Christy & P.G. Mellett, London: Wiley.
Dixon, N.F. (1983). The conscious-unconscious interface: Contributions
to an understanding. University of London, University College, England.
Archiv fur Psychologie, 135 (1), pp 55-66. ISSN: 0066-6475.
Dixon, N.F., Henley, S.H. & Weir, C.G. (1984). Extraction of information from continuously masked successive stimuli: An exploratory study. University of London, University College, England. Current Psychological Research & Review, 3 (1), pp 38-44. ISSN: 0737-8262.
Norman Dixon, Sue Henley and C.G. Weir reported on five studies in which
the amount and type of information recoverable from rapidly changing and
continuously masked letter strings, was examined.
Dixon, N.F. (1985a). Apparent changes in the visual threshold as a function of subliminal stimulation. A preliminary report. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 10, pp 211 219.
Dixon, N.F. (1985b). The effect of subliminal stimulation upon
autonomic and verbal behavior. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology,
Dodge, R. (1907). An improved exposure apparatus. Psychology Bulletin, 4, pp 10-13.
Doerries, L.E. & Harcum, E.R. (1967). Long-term traces of tachistoscopic word perception. Perceptual Motor Skills (United States), 25 (1), pp 25-30. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Doerries and Harcum examined the effects of visual subliminal word presentation on serial learning and verbal learning, and the long term memory traces.
Donovan, P. (1985). Selling right and left. Sales and Marketing Management, 134 (8), pp 63 65. ISSN: 0163-7517.
Priscilla Donovan examines the concept of brain hemisphere dominance
and determines how it can be applied to selling.
Donovan, W.J. (1986, February 18). Enter a quiet voice against shoplifting. Providence Journal Rhode Island.
William Donovan describes how more and more retailers are turning to
subliminal messages to combat shoplifting.
Duncan, J. (1985). Two techniques for investigating perception without awareness. MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge, England, Perception and Psychophysics, 38 (3), pp 296-298. ISSN: 0031-5117.
Dunham, W.R. (1894). The Science of Vital Force, Boston: Damrell and Upham.
Dunham discusses supraliminal and subliminal consciousness.
Dutto, F.N. & Galli, N. (1982). The effects of noxious subliminal suggestions upon smoking attitudes and behavior. ERIC, ED 217359 (EDRS).
Franklin Dutto and Nicholas Galli studied the effects of noxious subliminal
suggestions upon smoking attitudes and behavior.
Duval, M., P. Cogliolo, et al. (1990). Memory for intraoperative events and its psychological consequences. Memory and awareness in anaesthesia. W. F. Benno Bonke, Keith Millar,, Swets & Zeitlinger, Amsterdam, Netherlands: 244-249.
(from the chapter) aim of our study was to identify any occurrence of awareness or recall (during general anaesthesia), and to find out whether either or both of them would be associated with conscious or unconscious psychological consequences # 60 female patients ...(took) part in a study of cognitive functioning during and after surgery # during surgery, subjects would receive certain sounds, through headphones, at a normal listening volume.
© Copyright, 2007, Progressive Awareness Research, Inc., All rights reserved.