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Caracciolo, D., Shirsat, N., Wong, G.G., Lange, B., Clark, S. &
Rovera, G. (1987). Recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating
factor (M_CSF) requires subliminal concentrations of granulocytes/macrophage
(GM)-CSF for optimal stimulation of human macrophage colony formation
in vitro. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 166 (6), pp 1851 1860.
Carlsson, I. (1986). "A visual half-field study of anxiety and
defense." Psychological Research Bulletin, Lund U. 26(9): 15 p.
Compared visual half-fields examining defenses as mesured by meta-contrast
technique. Results showed that both visual field groups reacted with the
same measure of anxiety.
Carr, T. & Bacharach, V. (1976). Perceptual tuning and conscious
attention. Cognition, 4 (3), pp 281-302.
Carroll, R.T. (1980). Neurophysiological and psychological mediators
of response to subliminal perception: The influence of hemisphericity
and defensive style on susceptibility to subliminally presented conflict-laden
stimuli. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International,
41 (1-B), pp 342-343.
Richard Carroll examined the individual response, or sensitivity, to subliminal
Previous studies have indicated that the individual differences could
be explained, at least in part, by differences in either hemisphericity
or defensive style.
Four groups of subjects were selected on the basis of extremity in hemisphericity
and defensive styles. Each subject was exposed, tachistoscopically to
oedipal conflict arousing and conflict alleviating messages, a control
message and three neutral messages which served as a "buffer" or baseline
The subjects's dart-throwing accuracy was used as a measure of response,
or sensitivity, to the conflict-related and control stimuli.
The results revealed an interaction between hemisphericity and defensive
style. This indicates that the group with right hemisphericity with externalizing
defensive style and group with left hemisphericity with internalizing
defensive styles displayed subliminal sensitivity.
The groups with right hemisphericity with internalizing defensive styles
and the left hemisphericity with externalizing defensive styles did not
display subliminal sensitivity.
The results also indicate that, overall, the conflict arousing message
led to significantly lower dart-throwing scores than did the conflict-alleviating
Carstens, C.B. (1983). Retrospective discounting and augmenting
in an overjustification procedure. University of North Carolina, Greensboro.
Dissertation Abstract International, 44 (3-B). ISSN: 0419-4209.
Carter, R. (1986, January/February). Whispering soft nothings
to the shop thief: How "reinforcement messaging" works. Retail and
Distribution Management, 14 (1), pp 36, 39. ISSN: 0307-2363.
Roy Carter explains how the use of subliminal messages can stop theft.
A new method for curbing retail theft is being tested. This technique,
called reinforcement messaging (RM), involves the use of a computer-controlled
public address facility to broadcasts messages such as "Be honest - Don't
steal" over the store's loudspeaker system at the threshold of conscious
hearing. The customers are therefore being influenced without being aware
Due to the likelihood of this project prompting debate, the promoters
have taken measures to dispel talk of mind control. It is being emphasized
that only approved messages would be used, broadcasting would be at an
audible level, and posters would be posted carrying the same message.
Studies in the United States indicate that the system works.
Subliminal Assistance, Ltd., the company that markets RM, claims the method
can reduce shop theft by 30 percent.
Cassel, R. N., D. Hoey, et al. (1990). "Guided imagery with subliminal
stimulus in a mind-body health program for chemical dependency rehabilitation
(New Beginnings basic program). Special Issue: Special recognition to
Dr. Russell N. Cassel." Psychology - a Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior
Reviews the literature and data from psychoneuroimmunology and argue that
guided imagery and subliminal stimulus offer an effective stress management
intervention particularly for the rehabilitation of chemical dependents.
Castricone, L.E. (1987). Effects of subliminal symbiotic activation
on empathy as measured by conceptual level of object representation, cognitive
decentering and drive content. Dissertation Abstracts International,
48 (4-B), 1141.
Chakalis, E. and G. Lowe (1992). "Positive effects of subliminal
stimulation of memory." Perceptual & Motor Skills 74(3, Pt
Examined the effect of subliminally embedded positive affirmations on
short-term recall. Results showed that only the group receiving the subliminal
Chaloult, L., Borgeat, F. & Chabot, R. (1980). Subliminal
perception. 1. Its nature and the controversy engendered. Union Medical
Canada, 109 (12), pp 1694-1700. ISSN: 0041-6959. Language:
This article examines subliminal perception with regards to sensory
thresholds, perception, subliminal stimulation, photic stimulation and
also the public opinion surrounding this issue.
Charman, D.K. (1979), An examination of the relationship between
subliminal perception, visual information processing, levels of processing
and hemispheric asymmetries. Perceptual and Motor Skills 49 (2),
pp 451-455. ISSN: 0031-5125.
David Charman studied the relationship between subliminal perception,
visual information processing, levels of processing and hemispheric asymmetries.
A subliminal letter was exposed to the left right brain hemispheres for
either 15 or 30 msec.
Subjective guesses were more accurate for visuospatial positional recognition
made to presentation in the right hemisphere whereas verbal recognition
was more accurate to presentation in the left hemisphere.
The 30 msec. exposure increased the accuracy of the guesses.
The findings suggest that subliminal information is processed differentially
by the hemispheres with respect to positional or verbal content.
The left hemisphere processes subliminal verbal information better than
the right; the right hemisphere processes subliminal visuospatial-positional
information better than the left.
These findings were discussed in terms of differential triggering mechanisms
for levels of hemispheric processing.
Charman's findings reinforce evidence about the nature of hemispheric
information processing (Davis & Schmit, 1973; Dimond, 1972 and Searleman,
1977)., as well as adding to this evidence on the grounds that the hemispheres
appear to be differentially adapted/sensitive for specialized tasks, i.e.
the subliminal information triggered their respective asymmetries beyond
that of subjective awareness.
Charman's findings also reinforce Dixon's (1971) argument that subliminal
perception operates as a function of exposure and intensity of the present
Cheesman, J.E. (1987). Distinguishing conscious from unconscious
perceptual processes. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47
Cheesman, J. & Merikle, P.M. (1984). Priming with and without
awareness, University of Waterloo, Canada. Perception and Psychophysics,
36 (4), pp 387-395. ISSN: 0031-5117.
Jim Cheesman and Philip Merikle conducted two experiments to examine
whether meaning could be perceived without awareness in a color-naming
The color was immediately preceded by the presentation of a congruent
color word, incongruent color word, or control letter string.
No evidence for perception without awareness was found when the threshold
for detecting color-word primes was measured reliably by a forced-choice
procedure, and no priming occurred when the words were presented at the
detection threshold. However, systematic increases in the level of detection
for the primes led to correlated increases in the magnitude of priming.
The results provided no support for claims that priming is a more sensitive
indicator of perceptual processing than detection based upon verbal report.
Cherry, D. L. R. (1993). The effects of mood induction on nonconscious
Oklahoma State U, US.
Cherry, E.F. (1977). On success avoidance in women: a comparative
study of psychoanalytic theories. Adelphi University.
Chew, R. (1977, March 21). Three second spots - Too slow for
1992. Advertising Age, 48 (12), pp 1 & 87. ISSN: 0001-8899.
Robert Chew predicted that by 1992, television commercials would be
short, fast bursts of symbols and flashes verging on subliminal communication.
Chimera, J.E. (1987). An exploration of the effect of auditory
subliminal stimuli on schizophrenic pathology. Dissertation Abstracts
International, 47 (10-B), p. 4335.
Chinen, A.B., Spielvogel, A.M. & Farrell, D. (1985). The
experience of intuition. University of California, San Francisco. Psychological
Perspectives, 16 (2), pp 186-197. ISSN: 0033-2925.
Allan Chinen, Anna Spielvogel & Dennis Farrell interviewed a group
of senior training analysts from Freud and Jung Institutes and senior-level
business executives in major corporations about the experience of intuition.
The findings suggest that intuition is a large family of experiences where
subtle similarities alone revealed the blood tie.
Intuitions occurred in a distinctive media (verbal thoughts, mental images,
Intuitive experiences were related to subliminal cognition, merging experiences,
and synchronistic events.
Women reported more intuitions than did men and this study outlines the
Intuition appeared to become deeper with age.
The data suggests that the process of intuition involves attunement, articulation
The process of intuition parallels the creative process and depends on
the process of symbolization.
Citrin, M.D. (1980, May). The effects of subliminal oedipal stimulation
on competitive performance in college males and females. New York University.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (11-B), pp 5399-5400.
Molly Citrin examined the effects of subliminal visual oedipal stimulation
on the competitive performance of male versus female college students.
Claire, J.B. (1981). A holographic model of psychosomatic pattern:
Freud's specimen dream re interpreted. Institute of Epidemiology and Behavioral
Medicine, San Francisco, CA. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 36 (2),
pp 132-142. ISSN: 0033-3190.
Jill Claire discusses the specimen dream that Freud used to elaborate
his theories and that contained a representation of his cancer, which
manifested 28 years later.
The dream suggests an image of how a disease may become symbolically linked
to a psychological complex through subliminal physiological changes occurring
as a result of behaviors attributed to the complex.
The dream appears to operate like a holograph, exhibiting the seeds of
past trauma while simultaneously predicting the future.
Clark, M.M. (1987) Effects of social support and subliminal stimulation
on anxiety reduction. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48
(1-B), p. 258.
Findings suggest a lack of robustness of the effects of both social
support and subliminal (psychodynamic activation) stimulation.
Cohen, R.O. (1977). The effects of four subliminally-introduced
merging stimuli on the psychopathology of schizophrenic women. Dissertation
Abstracts International, 38 (5-B), pp 2356-2357.
Roni Cohen examined the effects of four subliminally introduced merging
stimuli on the psychopathology of schizophrenic women.
Two groups were examined in three sessions.
Group one received the experimental stimuli "Mommy and I are one" and
"My guy and I are one".
Group two received "Daddy and I are one" and "Girlfriend and I are one".
Half of each group received the messages with verbal plus picture presentation,
and half with a verbal-only presentation.
Each session ended with the Adjective Rating Scale, and the last session
included collection of demographic data and administration of the Embedded
The results lend support to the hypotheses that, under certain conditions,
The results do not support the hypothesis under all conditions, nor do they
support that merging stimulus of the female parent reduces pathology in
female subjects. Also, there was no significant difference in pathology
reducing effectiveness between stimuli of male and female objects in general.
1) merging stimuli reduce pathology in female schizophrenics,
2) merging with significant objects, other than the mother, reduces
pathology in female schizophrenics under certain conditions, and
3) the sex of the merging stimulus may be male or female for pathology
Condon, T.J. & Allen, G.J. (1980). Rise of psychoanalytic
merging fantasies in systematic desensitization: A rigorous methodological
examination. Guidance Center for Family & Youth, Danbury, CT. Journal
of Abnormal Psychology, 89 (3), pp 437-443. ISSN: 0021-843X.
In this study, Thomas Condon and George Allen present a methodologically
rigorous replication and extension of the investigation by Silverman,
L.H. et al, which shows that the success of systematic desensitization
resides partially in its activation of unconscious merging fantasies.
The results obtained, however, pose serious questions as to the internal,
external and statistical conclusion validity of Silverman's studies.
Bug-phobic women participated in 4 therapy sessions.
The desensitization technique employed was different to the norm in that
subliminal verbal stimuli were substituted for muscle relaxation.
The three stimuli used should have;
(a) decreased fear and behavioral avoidance,
(b) increased anxiety, or
(c) had no effect on fear of insects.
Subjects in all conditions showed significant improvement on behavioral
approach, self reported distress, and behaviorally rated anxiety.
No differential treatment outcomes were found.
Analyses ruled out such alternative explanations as therapist specificity
or instrumentation deficiencies.
Conner, L.A. (1984). Subliminal messages - Part 1 Keeping watch,
Series 2, Issue 5. Glen Mills. PA
Conner, L.A. (1984) Subliminal messages - Part 2, Keeping watch.
Series 2, Issue 6. Glen Mills, PA.
Conner, L. (1986 in W.J. Donovan, Enter a quiet voice against shoplifting).
Lawrence Conner, Director of Shoplifters Anonymous, states that, due
to the increasing problem of shoplifting, retailers feel that psychological
deterrence is the most economical way to go.
Conner, L.A. Jr. & Conner, L.A. III. (1985). The Midwest
Research report on subliminal messages in retail stores, Glen Mills,
Pennsylvania: Shoplifters Anonymous.
Larry Conner states that the use of subliminal messages as a deterrent
to shoplifters has a greater impact on occasional and habitual shoplifters.
Conte, M. & Gennaro, A. (1983). Unconscious perceptions,
subliminal perceptions and subliminal psychodynamic activation: paths
and methodologies. Giornale Storico di Psicologia Dinamica, 7 (13),
An overview and discussion of subliminal information processing including
the effects of subliminal stimulation on dreams, intuition, creativity
and aggression; with comments on semantic symbolism and restricting effects
of conscious awareness.
Cook, H. (1985). Effects of subliminal symbiotic gratification
and the magic of believing on achievement. Columbia University Teachers
College. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 2 (4), pp 365 371. ISSN: 0736-9735.
Harold Cook examined the effect of a subliminally presented symbiotic
gratification and a magic of believing message on academic achievement.
The subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental message conditions
or a control message condition and received on the average 12 sessions,
10 exposures per session, of 4 msec visual subliminal presentation of
1 of the 3 messages.
The experimental group's messages were either "Mommy and I are one," or
"I understand statistics (or measurement)."
The control group's message was "People are walking."
Each session occurred immediately prior to a lecture in either statistics
or a measurement class. Each of the courses was taught in a traditional
manner by the regular faculty, who were naive regarding the experimental
The final examinations for each course revealed statistically significant
differences in favor of the symbiotic gratification experimental condition
over the control condition.
No differences were obtained between the symbiotic and magic of believing
Cooper, C. & Kline, P. (1986). An evaluation of the Defence
Mechanism Test. University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland. British
Journal of Psychology, 77 (1), pp 19-32. ISSN: 0007-1269.
Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the Defence Mechanism Test
Experiment 1 used neutral and threatening secondary figures.
The results showed that subliminal threat is a necessary element of the
In Experiment II, subjects completed the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
(16PF), Group Embedded Figures Test, and DMT.
Although the correlations between the DMT scales and established personality
variables were generally small, they were as hypothesized from Freudian
The lack of correspondence, however, between the Repression scale of the
DMT and a measure of perceptual defense questions the validity of this
scale of the test.
DMT scores were little affected by individual differences in scanning
speed when the influence of anxiety was controlled
Cooper, L.M. & Hoskovec, J. (1972). Hypnotic suggestion for
learning during stage 1 REM sleep. Brigham Young University. American
Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 15 (2), pp 102-111.
This study shows that learning during sleep is possible, but the procedures
used in this experiment were not appropriate for practical application.
Coren, S., Porac, C. & Ward, L.M. (1978). Sensation and
Perception. Academic Press: New York.
The question addressed by Coran, Porac and Ward is, "do audio messages
have to be above audio threshold in order to make a difference in one's
The argument put forward is that, in the signal detection theory, a subject
will alter his response to different levels of possible stimuli.
It is known that when the subject believes that a signal rarely occurs,
then they will respond to the faintest sensation.
However, if it is known that the signal occurs rarely, the subject would
be tempted to wait to respond until the sensation is stronger.
Using this argument, it should therefore be possible to alter response
patterns by altering subjects' expectations.
Corrigan, R.E. & Becker, H.C. (1956). Research Report.
Rome Air Development Command, Griffiss Air Force Base, Rome, NY.
Corrigan and Hal Becker provide evidence that
a) new and useful information can be subliminally communicated
to the unconscious, and
b) this information can be used, at a later time, at the conscious
level in a problem solving situation.
Corrigan, R.E. & Becker, H.C. (Oct. 30, 1962). Apparatus for
producing visual stimulation. United States Patent Office, 3,060,795.
Robert E. Corrigan and Hal C. Becker filed a patent for apparatus which
produces visual stimulation at levels of awareness below that ability
of an observer to report the stimulus verbally.
The apparatus is to be used to impart useful information to the observer
by subconscious stimulation, resulting subsequently in conscious purposive
behavior of said observer without his awareness of the basis for such
Costley, D.L. & Moore, F.A. (1986). The subliminal impact
and hidden agendas of training. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces.
Personnel Journal, 65 (3), pp 101-102 and p. 105.
Dan Costley and Fay Moore suggest that trainers should be upfront about
the use of subliminals for training purposes.
The concern is the possible effects of the subliminals after the training
Crawford, B.H. & Palmer, D.A. (1985). The scotopic visibility
curve and cone intrusion. Institute of Ophthalmology, Department of Visual
Science, London, England. Vision Research, 25 (6), pp 863-866.
In this study the scotopic visibility curves of 2 observers was measured
by determining their absolute thresholds for monochromatic lights.
It is postulated, however, that the threshold results in the long-wave
part of the spectrum could be considerably modified by subliminal red
and green lights. This is consistent with B. Drum's (1982) observations
of subadditivity at threshold.
Crawford, M.A. (1985). Subliminal messaging - A 50s technology
enjoys a rebirth. Security Management, 29 (8), pp 54-56. ISSN:
Mary Crawford reported on the use of subliminal communication as a method
to reduce retail theft.
There is controversy over whether subliminal communication is effective
for the purpose of reducing shop theft, and there are also complaints
about it intruding on personal privacy.
She indicated that, at present, no laws govern the use of subliminal communication
although there have been proposals for regulating it.
Despite the controversy over its effectiveness, the use of subliminal
communication is growing.
One company claims 20 to 40 percent reduction in losses.
Cummins, R.A. (1985). Subliminal perception. A discussion with
special relevance to the uses of subliminal audio tapes. Bulletin of
the Australian Psychological Society, pp 28-35.
Robert Cummins discusses research on subliminal communication, with
particular emphasis on the faults in methodology.
An argument put forward is that of Timothy E. Moore, where it is believed
that some of the results obtained from scientific research were actually
due to effects of weak (but not subliminal) stimulation.
The article erroneously states that the practice of using subliminal messages
was outlawed in the United States.
Cummins produces contradictions in his arguments against subliminal communication
with his belief that such "mind control" techniques should be banned,
whilst still maintaining that they do not work.
Cummins believes that any results obtained from using subliminal audio
tapes are purely placebo effects.
Cuperfain, R. & Clarke, T.K. (1985). A new perspective of
subliminal perception. Journal of Advertising, 14 (1), pp 36-41.
The problem with previous research regarding the effects subliminal stimulation
has on buying behavior, may be due to the researchers focusing on the
wrong areas of subliminal perception or making unreasonable demands on
Research has suggested that right brain processing may be more efficient
than left brain processing. Also, subliminal stimulation may affect most
people through right brain information processing.
This means that multiple exposures of graphic representations of products
presented to the left field of vision will generate effective subliminal
Ronnie Cuperfain and Keith Clarke tested this model of subliminal stimulation
in a laboratory study.
Subjects viewed a film concerning woolen-clothing soaps that did or did
not have a subliminal messages (5 tachistoscopic presentation to the left
visual field of a picture of 1 of 2 products).
Each subliminal presentation lasted for 1/60th of 1 second.
The subjects then completed a questionnaire that asked them to rank-order
the 5 soaps.
The results indicate that the subliminal messages did have an impact on
stated preference for the highly advertised, widely available product,
but not for the relatively unknown product.
The test also suggests that regular programming presents a greater potential
for misuse of subliminal stimulation than commercial breaks.
Czyzewska-Pacewicz, M. (1984). The priming phenomenon in semantic
memory evoked by sub threshold stimuli. Polish Academy of Sciences, Psychology
Institute, Warsaw. Przeglad Psychologiczny, 27 (3), pp 617-629.
ISSN: 1148-5675, Language: POLISH.
In this study Maria Czyzewska-Pacewicz examined semantic priming produced
by unconsciously transformed stimuli.
It is assumed that the semantic analysis of information received beyond
the control of awareness probably plays a considerable role in more functionally
complex cognitive processes.
Stimuli were presented below the threshold of cognition and remained in
various semantic relations with materials consciously seen and transformed
by the subjects.
A clear effect of priming was revealed by the shortening of the impulse
transformation when it was preceded by a semantically linked stimulus
exposed beyond the control of awareness.