Truth About Subliminal Programs
Choices and Illusions
Peripheral Desk Reference - B
Babighian, G. (1969). Behavior and clinical importance of various subliminal tests in Meniere's disease. Minerva Otorinolaringol, 19 (4), pp 215-217. ISSN: 0026-4938, Language: ITALIAN.
Bagby, P.K. (1985). The effect of symbiotic and Oedipal subliminal stimuli on field independence and competitive tasks. University of Nevada, Reno. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (12-B, pt 1), p. 3927. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Patricia Bagby examined the effect of symbiotic and Oedipal subliminal stimuli on field independence and competitive tasks in college students.
Baker, L.E. (1937a). The influence of subliminal stimuli upon verbal behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 20.
Lynn Baker sets out the influence of priming on verbal behavior.
Baker, L.E. (1937b). The pupillary response conditioned to subliminal auditory stimuli. Doctoral Dissertation, Vol W1937, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Lynn Baker examined the conditioning of the pupillary response by subliminal auditory stimuli.
Balay J. & Shevrin, H. (1988). The psychodynamic activation method, a critical review. American Psychologist, 43 (3), pp 161-174.
Jennifer Balay and Howard Shevrin review the psychodynamic
Balay, J. S. (1987). The role of aggression in bipolar affective disorder: a subliminal approach. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (4-B), p. 1145.
Balota, D.A. (1982). Automatic and attentional activation in semantic and episodic memory: Implications for the utility of conscious awareness. University of South Carolina. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (12-B, Pt 1), p. 4952. ISSN: 0419-4209.
In this study, David Balota investigated the influence of a pattern-masked
subliminal stimulus on long-term memory and response latency on lexical
Bancroft, W.J. (1976). Suggestology and suggestopedia; The theory of the Lozanov method. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 132857).
Jane Bancroft discusses the theory of the Lozanov method.
Banretti-Fuchs, K.M. (1967). Perception without awareness. Acta Psychologie, 26 (2), pp 148 160.
This paper examines visual perception with subliminal stimulation.
Barber, P.J. (1977). Experimenter bias against subliminal perception? A rejoinder. University of London, Birkbeck College. British Journal of Psychology, 68 (3), pp 281-82.
Paul Barber replies to criticisms regarding his replication
of three subliminal perception experiments.
Barber P.J. (1982). Perceptual defence: Attempted replication using the dark adaptation paradigm. A rejoinder. University of London, Birkbeck College, England. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 36 (3) pp 345-348. ISSN: 0008-4255.
Paul Barber discusses criticisms by A.G. Worthington
(1964) regarding the replications by the present author and C. de la Mahotiere
using the dark-adaptation paradigm for perceptual defense.
Barber, P.J. & Rushton, J.P. (1975). Experimenter bias and subliminal perception. University of London, Birkbeck College, England. British Journal of Psychology, 66 (3), pp 357-372.
Paul Barber and J. Philippe Rushton addressed the question
that subliminal perception may be due, in part, to experimenter bias effects.
Barchas, P.R. & Perlaki, K.M. (1986). Processing of preconsciously acquired information measured by hemispheric asymmetry and selection accuracy. Behavioral Neuroscience, 100 (3), pp 343-349. ISSN: 0735-7044.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of instruction types on hemispheric activation and accurate selection of spatial stimuli that had previously been presented at a subliminal level.
The results supported the hypothesis that analytical subjects would be more likely to engage the parietal region of their left hemisphere and holistic subjects would favor relative activation of the right parietal region.
The findings are discussed in terms of a memory model of information processing.
Barenklau, K.E. (1981). Using subliminal in technical training. Training, 18 (12), pp 50-51. ISSN: 0095-5892.
It has been seen through subliminal advertising that people can be taught to respond positively to very brief images. Keith Barenklau explains how this technique may be used effectively in some kinds of technical training.
The human brain processes information in very short periods of time
- perhaps 1/1000th of a second. Experience has shown that a high level
of detail can be built up in memory, along with highly specific learning
responses to images.
Bargh, J.A., Bond, R.N., Lombardi, W.J. & Tota, M.E. (1986). The addictive nature of chronic and temporary sources of construct accessibility. New York University. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 50 (5), pp 869-878. ISSN: 0022-3514.
John Bargh, Ronald Bond, Wendy Lombardi and Mary Tota
investigated the joint influence of long- and short-term sources of accessibility
on impression formation.
Bargh, J. A. (1992). Does subliminality matter to social psychology? Awareness of the stimulus versus awareness of its influence. Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives. T. S. P. Robert F. Bornstein, Guilford Press, New York, NY, US: 236-255.
(From a chapter)> The author asserts that it makes no difference how the information is processed, aware or unaware, but what does matter is the influence of the subliminality and whether the individual is aware of the ways in which the stimulus is interpreted.
Barkoczi, I., Sera, L. & Komlosi, A. (1983). Relationships
between functional asymmetry of the hemispheres, subliminal perception
and some defence mechanisms in various experimental settings. Eotvos Lorand
University, Budapest, Hungary. Psychologia: An International Journal of
Psychology in the Orient, 26 (1), pp 1-20 ISSN: 0033-
I. Barkoczi, L. Sera and A. Komlosi studied the relationship
between functional asymmetry of the hemispheres, subliminal perception
and some defense mechanisms in various experimental settings.
Barratt, P.E.H. & Beh, H.C. (1964), Subliminal perception of the concept of vigilance. Australian Journal of Psychology, pp 107-119.
Barratt, P.E.H. & Herd, J.H. (1964). Subliminal conditioning of the alpha rhythm. Australian Journal of Psychology, 16, pp 9-19.
Battersby, W.S. & Defabaugh, G.L., (1969). Neural limitations of visual excitibility: after effects of subliminal stimulation. Vision Research, 9 (7), pp 757-768. ISSN: 0042-6989.
This paper examines the after-effects of subliminal stimulation on visual perception.
Bauer, W.D. (1986). The effects of conditional and unconditional subliminal stimuli on intrinsic motivation. University of Rochester. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (8-B), pp 2794 2795. ISSN: 0419-4209.
This study attempts to rule out the Self Perception accounts of findings
in the intrinsic motivation literature. Behavioral and affective indices
of intrinsic motivation were demonstrated to be effected outside of awareness.
The Subliminal Psychodynamic Activation Method was used to present the
experimental intervention outside of awareness.
Baumeister, A. & Kistler, D. (1975). Facilitation of retention by white noise. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 20, pp 13-31.
Bayuk, M. & Bayuk, B.S. (1980). Suggestology and suggestopedia: A selective bibliography of western sources. ERID ED 192556 FL011596.
Milla Bayuk and Barry Bayuk compiled a bibliography with more than 200 titles, including addendum with 22 titles lists:
Becker, H.C., Chamberlain, S.B., Heisse, J.W. Jr. & Marino, D.R. (1982). Subliminal communication and hypnosis. Paper presented at the Conference of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis. Denver, October.
In this paper evidence is presented that shows how subliminal communication
offers a broad spectrum of approaches for "human resource potentiation."
Becker, H.C. & Charbonnet, K.D. (1980). Applications of subliminal video and audio stimuli in therapeutic, educational, industrial and commercial settings. Eighth Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, March 28, 1980.
Becker, H.C., Charbonnet, K.D., Warren III, E.S., Corrigan. R.E., Schmidt III, L.F., Griffin, Jr., C.E., Penick III, R.M. & Ryder III, F.B. (1980). New subliminal processors for therapy, industry, education. 33rd Annual Conference of Engineering in Medicine and Biology (ACEMB), Washington, D.C., September 30-October 3.
Becker, H.C., Corrigan, R.E., Elder, S.T., Tallant, J.D. & Goldstein, M. (1965, August 22 27). Subliminal communication: Biological engineering considerations. Digest of the 6th International Conference of Medical Electronics and Biological Engineering, pp 452-453. Tokyo.
Becker, H.C. & Elder, S.T. (1966). Can subliminal perception be useful to the psychiatrist? Excerpta Medica (International Congress, Series No. 117). Abstract of paper presented to the IV World Congress of Psychiatry, Madrid, Spain, September 5-11.
Becker, H.C. & Glanzer, H.H. (1978). Subliminal communication: Advances in audiovisual engineering applications for behavior therapy and education. Proceedings of the 1978 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Region 3 Conference. Atlanta, April 10-12.
Becker, H.C., Jewell, J.F. & Alito, P. (1977, March 13017). Video and audio signal monitors/processors for subliminal communication in weight control. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), San Francisco.
Begg, I. M., D. R. Needham, et al. (1993). "Do backward messages unconsciously affect listeners? No." Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 47(1): 1-14.
The authors studies the influence of reverse subliminal messages and determined that the forward meaning of backward statements does not leak through.
Beisgen, R.T., Jr. & Gibby, R.G., Jr. (1969). Autonomic and verbal discrimination of a subliminally learned task. Virginia Commonwealth University. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 29 (2), pp 503-507. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Robert Beisgen, Jr. and Robert Gibby, Jr. examines subliminal
perception by employing classical conditioning techniques at a subliminal
Bell, P.D. (1986). The interspersal technique of Milton Erickson: Testing an operational definition. Fielding Institute. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (10-B), pp 3586-3587. ISSN: 0419 4209.
In this study, Paul Bell tested the hypothesis that an embedded message
in a taped story would impact subjects differently than the same story
without an embedded message.
Bellach and Williamson reported a positive correlation between subliminal suggestion and weight control.
Beloff, J. (1973). The subliminal and the extrasensory. University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Parapsychology Review, 4 (3), pp 23-27.
John Beloff compares ESP and subliminal perception.
Bender, B.G. (1973). Spatial interactions between the red- and green-sensitive color mechanisms of the human visual system. Imperial College, Applied Optics Section, London, England. Visual Research, 13 (12), pp 2205-2218.
The effects of subliminal annuli on the increment threshold of a central
test spot, and the supraliminal annuli on the flicker threshold of a central
test were used to psychophysically study spatial interactions in the visual
Benes, K. M., T. B. Gutkin, et al. (1990). "The effects of mellow and frenetic music on reported cognitions resulting from auditory subliminal messages." Journal of General Psychology 117(1): 83-89.
The authors report on the results of a study employing subliminal messages
with both frenetic and mellow music. Subjects reported more word related
imagery in the mellow music despite the absence of a subliminal correspondent.
Bengtsson, H. (1991). "Relationships between perceptual defence reactions and subjective tendencies in the phenomenal representation of facial displays of affect."
Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 32(1): 38-47. This
study examined nonveridical reports of a stimulus-motif when presented
subliminally. Results suggest a correspondence between the individuals
perceptual distortions as a result of the threatening stimuli presented
and their scheme of aggression and threat.
Ben-Hur, A. (1979). The relationship of systematic desensitization and the activation of symbiotic merging fantasy to speech anxiety reduction among college students.New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (5-B), pp 2351-2352.
Amos Ben-Hur compares the relationship of systematic
desensitization and the activation of symbiotic merging fantasy to speech
Benoit, S. C. and R. L. Thomas (1992). "The influence of expectancy in subliminal perception experiments." Journal of General Psychology 119(4): 335-341.
Subjects listened to music without subliminal information. Believers
in subliminal perception reported hearing subliminal messages more than
non-believers and additionally reported greater mood changes.
Benson, H. (1979). The mind/body effect. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Herbert Benson shows that man has the power to influence the sympathetic nervous system, which is generally considered involuntary.
Berlin, P.D. (1984, March). An evaluation: Can subliminal messages be used to control shrinkage? Peter Berlin Report. (Price Waterhouse Newsletter), pp 5-6.
Peter Berlin argues in favor of using subliminal messages
to control shrinkage.
Bernstein, B.R. (1986). The effects of subliminal symbiotic and oedipal stimuli on weight loss in obese women. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, (8-B), 2795. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Bonnie Bernstein examined the effects of subliminal symbiotic and oedipal stimuli on weight loss in obese women.
Bernstein, I. H., V. Bissonnette, et al. (1989). "Semantic priming: Subliminal perception or context?" Perception & Psychophysics 45(2): 153-161.
This study demonstrated that masked priming can effect the processing
of subsequent processing of semantically related targets.
Bernstein, I. H. and K. R. Welch (1991). "Awareness, false recognition, and the Jacoby Whitehouse effect." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120(3): 324-328.
This study sought to replicate the so-called Jacoby-Whitehouse effect.
The authors suggest two specific nonsubliminal mechanisms as possible
explanations for the unconsious processing of context stimuli and resulting
false or true recognition.
Bernstein, J.H. & Eriksen, C.W. (1965). Effects
of "subliminal" prompting on paired-associate learning. Journal
of Experimental Research in Personality, 1, pp 33-38.
Berry, D.M. (1985). Effects of educative/support groups and subliminal psychodynamic activation on bulimia in college women. University of California, Davis. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (11-B), p. 3612. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Diana Berry examined the effects of group therapy and subliminal psychodynamic activation on bulimia.
Subliminal psychodynamic activation effects were observed in this study
evaluating effects on bingeing and emotional distress. The subliminal
stimuli appeared to exert a direct treatment effect on both restrained
eating and emotional distress.
Besnard, D. and A. Channouf (1994). "Subliminal perception of familiar stimuli and solving easy problems." Anuario de Psicologia 62(3): 41-53.
This study evaluated the effects of subliminally presented familiar and
unfamiliar faces and words.
Bevan, W. (1964a). Subliminal stimulation: a pervasive problem for psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 61 (2), pp 84-92.
Bevan, W. (1964b). Contemporary problems in adaption level theory. Psychological Bulletin, 61 (3), pp 161-187.
Bevan, W. & Pritchard, J.F. (1963). Effect of "subliminal" tones upon the judgment of loudness. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66.
Bianki, V.L. & Kurochkin, V.A. (1976). Callosal influences on the focus of maximum activity in the visual cortex during subliminal stimulation. Biol. Nauki., (7), pp 76-81. ISSN: DA3B 0000, Language: RUSSIAN.
Bianki & Kurochkin examined the effect of subliminal stimulation on the influence of the Corpus Callosum on the focus of maximum activity in the visual cortex.
Black, R.W. & Bevan, W. (1960). The effect of subliminal shock upon the judged intensity of weak shock. American Journal of Psychology, 73.
Blakkan, R. (1982). Fear and loving in regulation land: Liquor marketers learn to live within the rules and like it/what some of the fuss is about. Advertising Age, 53 (34), pp M-22-23, M-26. ISSN: 0001-8899.
Renee Blakkan discusses the liquor business in the USA.
Blasdel, P. F. (1989). Subliminal psychodynamic activation and academic achievement, U Oklahoma, US.
Block, M.P. & Vanden Bergh, B.G. (1985). Can you sell subliminal messages to consumers? Michigan State University. Journal of Advertising, 14 (3), pp 59-62. ISSN: 0091-3367.
Martin Block and Bruce Vanden Bergh
conducted a telephone survey of 330 adults to determine consumer attitudes
toward the use of subliminal stimulation techniques in a self improvement
Bloomquist, D. W. (1985). Teaching sensation and perception: Its ambiguous and subliminal aspects. The G. Stanley Hall lecture series, Vol. 5. C. J. S. Anne M. Rogers, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, US: 161-203.
Identifies problems inherent to the study of perception. Discusses subliminal
advertsising, concepts of sensation and perception, and ambiguous figures.
Blum, G.S. (1975) Reply to Jennings and George. University of California, Santa Barbara. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 41 (3), pp 957-958.
Gerald Blum criticizes L.B. Jennings and S.G. George's attempted replication
of his study on perceptual vigilance ad defense.
Boardman, W. K. & Gladstone S. (1962). Effects of subliminal anchors upon judgments of size. Perceptual Motor Skills, 14.
Bonke, B. and M. Jelicic (1991). "On unconscious processes." Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie en Haar Grensgebieden 46(2): 51-67.
The authors provide an overview of subliminal perception, unconsious
motivations and implicit memory.
Bonnet, E.B. (1974). The utilization of audio tapes in hypnosis. Journal of the American Institute of Hypnosis. 15 (2), pp 82-87, 92.
Eldon Bonnet discusses the use of audio tapes in hypnoanalysis.
Borgeat, F. (1983). Psychophysiological effects of two different relaxation procedures: Progressive relaxation and subliminal relaxation. Louis-H, Lafontaine Hospital, Psychiatric Research Center, Montreal, Canada. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa, 8 (4), pp 181-185. ISSN: 0702-8466.
Francois Borgeat compared the physiological effects
of progressive relaxation and subliminal relaxation. The experimental
technique involved the audition of soft music subliminal suggestions of
Borgeat, F., Chabot, R. & Chaloult, L. (1981). Subliminal perception and level of activation. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 26 (4), pp 255-259. ISSN: 0008-9824. Language: FRENCH.
Francois Borgeat, Ronald Chabot and Louis Chaloult reported positive results in clinical work with smokers, alcoholics and obese patients.
Two noteworthy studies were conducted using double blind experiments.
It was found that the auditory subliminal messages influenced the level
of activation on their subjects.
Borgeat, F. & Chaloult, L. (1985). A relaxation experiment using radio broadcasts. University of Montreal, Louis-H. Lafontaine Hospital, Canada. Canada's Mental Health, 33 (1), pp 11-13. ISSN: 0008-2791.
Francois Borgeat and Louis Chaloult describe
a primary prevention activity in which a radio station broadcasted music
in which subliminal relaxation messages had been mixed.
Borgeat, F., Chaloult, L. & Chabot, R. (1981). Subliminal perception: neurophysiological models and aspects of research in Quebec. Union Medical Canada, 110 (1), pp 19-22. ISSN: 0041-6959, Language: FRENCH.
Borgeat, F., Elie, R., Chaloult, L. & Chabot, R. (1985). Psychophysiological responses to masked auditory stimuli. Louis-H. Lafontaine Hospital, Psychiatric Research Center, Montreal, Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 30 (1), pp 22-27. ISSN: 0706-7437.
The purpose of the study was to compare effects of masked auditory verbal
stimuli (words masked by a dominant-sounding white noise) presented at
increasing intensities on the physiological responses of 20 21-30 year
old healthy women.
The hypothesis tested was that physiological responses can be influenced
by the meaning of subliminal auditory stimuli.
This suggests that the women were protected from responding to potentially
disturbing stimulus of which they were not aware.
Borgeat, F., J. Boissonneault, et al. (1989). "Psychophysiological responses to subliminal auditory suggestions for activation." Perceptual & Motor Skills 69(3, Pt 1): 947-953.
In this study the authors masked a subliminal activation message with 40-db of white noise. Measuring subjects galvanic skin response and heart rate, the researchers found an effect on heart rate but not skin conductance.
Borgeat, F. & Goulet, J. (1983) Psychophysiological changes following auditory subliminal suggestions for activation and deactivation. Louis-H. Lafontaine Hospital, Psychiatric Research Center, Montreal, Canada. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56 (3), pp 759-766. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Francois Borgeat and Jean Goulet exposed
18 normal 21- to 41-year-old subjects alternately to a control situation
and to 25-db activating and deactivating suggestions masked by a 40-db
Borgeat, F. & Pannetier, M.F. (1982). Interest of cumulative electrodermal responses in subliminal auditory perception: preliminary study. Louis H. Lafontaine Hospital, Center de Recherche Psychiatrique, Montreal, Canada. Encephale, 8 (4), pp 487-499. ISSN: 0013-7006, Language: FRENCH.
Borgeat & Pannetier examined the usefulness of averaging
electrodermal responses for research on subliminal auditory perception.
This study indicates that electrodermal response count constitutes a useful measure for subliminal auditory perception research, but averaging those responses was not shown to bring additional information.
Borgeld, T. W. (1990). The effects of references to mother during early childhood using the subliminal psychodynamic activation method, U Oklahoma, US.
Bornstein, R.F. (1987). Subliminal mere exposure effects and conscious cognition: a study of attitude changes in response to stimuli perceived without awareness. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (9-B), p. 3941.
Bornstein, R.F., Leone, D.R. & Galley, D.J. (1987). The generalizability of subliminal mere exposure effects: influence of stimuli perceived without awareness on social behavior. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 53 (6), pp 1070-1079.
Bornstein, R. F. & Masling, J.M. (1984). Subliminal psychodynamic stimulation: Implications for psychoanalytic theory and therapy. State University of New York, Buffalo. International Forum for Psychoanalysis, 1 (2), pp 187-204. ISSN: 0738-8217.
Robert Bornstein and Joseph Masling discuss the work
of L.H. Silverman et al.
Bornstein, R. F. (1989). "Subliminal techniques as propaganda tools: Review and critique." Journal of Mind & Behavior 10(3): 231-262
The author suggests that the research demonstrates that subliminal messages can produce changes in attitude and behavior and therefore may have an effective role in propaganda.
Bornstein, R. F. (1990). Subliminal mere exposure and psychodymanic activation effects: Implications for the psychoanalytic theory of conscious and unconscious mental processes. Empirical studies of psychoanalytic theories, Vol. 3. Joseph Masling, Analytic Press, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, US: 55-88.
The author's chapter reviews the history of subliminal research and discusses some of the methodological problems. He further examines and evaluates the psychodynamic activation research and the model for conscious/unconscious processing.
Bornstein, R. F. (1990). "Critical importance of stimulus unawareness for the production of subliminal psychodynamic activation effects: A meta-analytic review." Journal of Clinical Psychology 46(2): 201-210.
Used meta-analysis to access the magnitude of change in subjects produced as a result of subliminal and supraliminal drive related stimuli from 11 subliminal psychodynamic activation studies. Results support L. Silverman's hypothesis that drive related stimuli must be presented subliminally to produce subliminal psychodynamic activation.
Bornstein, R. F. (1992). Inhibitory effects of awareness on affective responding: Implications for the affect-cognition relationship. Emotion. Review of personality and social psychology, No. 13. Margaret S. Clark, Sage Publications, Inc, Newbury Park, CA, US: 235-255.
Bornstein's chapter in this work examines the affect-cognition relationship with respect to subliminal psychodynamic activation theory.
Bornstein, R. F. and T. S. Pittman, Eds. (1992). Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives. New York, NY, US
, Guilford Press. (from the jacket) This landmark volume brings together the work of the world's leading researchers in subliminal perception. This compilation marks a fundamental shift in the current study of subliminal effects: No longer in question is the notion that perception without awareness occurs. Now, the emphasis is on elucidating the parameters of subliminal effects and understanding the conditions under which stimuli perceived without awareness significantly influence affect, cognition, and behavior. /// "Perception Without Awareness" firmly establishes subliminal perception within the mainstream of psychological science. Well represented here are the two main research branches that have emerged: One directly investigates the nature of subliminal effects; the other uses subliminal techniques as tools for investigating psychological phenomena such as hypnosis, dreaming, repression, social judgment and inference, psychopathology, and symptom formation. /// Timely and thought-provoking, "Perception Without Awareness" is sure to be of enormous interest to all psychoanalytic clinicians and scholars, as well as cognitive, clinical, and social psychologists whose work touches upon issues relating to psychopathology, perception, cognition, and memory.
Bornstein, R. F. (1992). Subliminal mere exposure effects. Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives. T. S. P. Robert F. Bornstein, Guilford Press, New York, NY, US: 191-210. (from the chapter) discuss a line of research in which certain experiments fulfill the criteria put forth by the dissociation model to establish perception without awareness while simultaneously fulfilling Reingold and Merikle's (1988) direct/indirect criteria for demonstrating subliminal effects / after reviewing research on "subliminal mere exposure" (SME) effects ...I present a theoretical model of the mere exposure effect that accommodates findings in this area more completely than do existing models / preliminary tests of this new theoretical model are described, and previous research on SME effects is discussed in the context of the model / the implications of this theoretical framework for our understanding of the findings produced in other areas of subliminal perception research is discussed.
Bornstein, R. F. (1992). "Critical importance of stimulus unawareness for the production of subliminal psychodynamic activation effects: An attributional model." Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 180(2): 69-76.
Bornstein describes a new theory of subliminal psychodynamic activation effects.
Bornstein, R. F. and P. R. D'Agostino (1992). "Stimulus recognition and the mere exposure effect." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 63(4): 545-552.
The authors conducted two experiments to re-examine the mere exposure effect. Their results tended to support the mere exposure effect, showing that stimuli perceived without awareness can produce substantially stronger exposure effects than stimuli presented in a manner where full awareness processes the information.
Bornstein, R. F. and P. R. D'Agostino (1994). "The attribution and discounting of perceptual fluency: Preliminary tests of a perceptual fluency/attributional model of the mere exposure effect." Social Cognition 12(2): 103-128.
Borysenko, J. & Borysekno, M. (1983). On psychoneuroimmunology: How the mind influences health and disease...and how to make the influence beneficial. Executive Health, 19. p 10.
Susan Bouchard studied the effects of combining subliminal
and relaxation training principles on anxiety via subliminal suggestions
The subjects listened daily to one of four recordings for 1 day. Pre-
and post-treatment scores on the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS)
were obtained. Subjects also rated their moods daily on Likert-type scale.
Bovier, P., Broekkamp, C.L. & Lloyd, K.G. (1982). Enhancing GABAergic transmission reverses the aversive state in rats induced by electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal grey region. Clinique Psychiatrique Bel-Air, Geneva, Switzerland. Brain Research, 248 (2), pp 313-320. ISSN: 0006-8993.
Phillipe Bovier, Chris Broekkamp and Kenneth Lloyd found that, when GAB agonist progabide and diazepam where given together in subliminal doses to Charles River Rats, the combination exerted a marked auto-aversive effect.
Bower, B. (1987). Subliminal messages: changes for the better? Science News, 129 (13), pp 156 158.
Bruce Bower's article discusses the work of Lloyd Silverman,
and in particular, Silverman's use of a tachistoscope to project subliminal
Bowersox, R.E. (1981). The theory of subliminal perception: How it relates to subliminal stimulation in advertising. Unpublished report, Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
Brandeis, D. & Lehmann, D. (1986). Event-related potentials of the brain and cognitive processes: Approaches and applications. Special issue: Methods in neuropsychology, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland. Neuropsychologia, 24 (1), pp 151-168. ISSN: 0028-3932.
Brandeis and Lehmann argue that early event-related
potential (ERP) components are valuable in clinical testing of the afferent
sensory systems in the absence of anamnestic or clinical pathology.
Brannon, L. A. and T. C. Brock (1994). The subliminal persuasion controversy: Reality, enduring fable, and Polonius's weasel. Persuasion: Psychological insights and perspectives. T. C. B. Sharon Shavitt, Allyn & Bacon, Inc, Boston, MA, US: 279-293.
(from the book) popular belief in the power of subliminal manipulation appears to be increasing / ironically, the widespread belief in subliminal persuasion--despite the absence of scientific evidence--is based on the very factors that lead psychologists to doubt its effectiveness / discuss the evidence for and against subliminal persuasion and explain why popular belief in it is likely to persist indefinitely.
Branscomb, L. P. (1989). An exploration of the fantasy of the primary bond: Use of the subliminal psychodynamic activation method in adult women, Georgia State U, Coll of Arts & Sciences, US.
Brennan, S.N. (1984). The effect of subliminal separation-individuation schemas on moral reasoning and mood in depressed and non-depressed women. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (6-b), p. 1907. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Sharon Brennan examines the effect of subliminal separation-individuation conflicts on the moral reasoning and the depressive moods of female college students.
Brice, L., Taylor, E., Lionberger, W.J. & Morris, W.P. (1986). What you should know about subliminal perception and subliminal self-improvement tapes. Gateways Research Institute, Inc.
This booklet contains a review of literature and information to encourage
use of subliminal self-help tapes.
Brody, N. (1989). "Unconscious learning of rules: Comment on Reber's analysis of implicit learning." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118(3): 236-238.
The author suggests a discrimination procedure to establish awareness levels and comments on the failure to do same by Reber.
Bromfield, R.N. (1986). Subliminal psychodynamic activation: Demonstration, oedipal factors and personality correlates. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (11-B), p. 4005. ISSN 0419-4209.
Richard Bromfield examined the effects of the subliminal tachistoscope stimulation of unconscious oedipal wishes & personality traits on the dart throwing performance of male college students.
Bronstein, A.A. (1977). An experimental study of internalization fantasies on schizophrenic men. Yeshiva University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (9-B), p. 4665.
Bronstein, A.A. & Rodin, G.C. (1983). An experimental study of internalization fantasies in schizophrenic men. Children's Hospital Medical Center, San Francisco, CA. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 20 (4), pp 408-416. ISSN: 0478-7013.
Abbot Bronstein and Gail Rodin explored the types of internalization fantasies involving the constructs (or concepts or fantasies) of mother that are ameliorative in schizophrenia.
Four groups of 30 subjects each received a subliminal experimental stimulus designed to activate a different fantasy of internalization as well as a subliminal neutral control message.
The experimental messages were;
The control message was "People are walking."
"Mommy and I are one" was the only stimulus to be found effective
in reducing pathology.
Brooks, J. (1985). The little ad that isn't there: a look at subliminal advertising. Consumer Reports, 23, pp 7-10.
In this article Brooks describes experiments by James Vicary where words
were flashed on a movie screen at speeds too fast to register consciously.
These words were perceived and acted upon by the subconscious mind.
Brosgole, L. & Contino, A.F. (1973). Intrusion of subthreshold learning upon later performance. Psychological Reports, 32 (3, part 1), pp 795-798.
Leonard Brosgole and Angelo Contino
conducted two experiments to determine the frequency with which subliminal
learning intrudes on subsequent performance.
Brush, J. (1982). Subliminal stimulation in asthma: Imaginal, associative and physiological effects. Boston University Graduate School. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (4-B), pp 1294 1295. ISSN 0419-4209.
Twenty asthmatic and twenty non-asthmatic subjects viewed tachistoscopic
presentations, at speeds to rapid for conscious awareness, of pictures
and words representing oral aggression, abandonment, mutual helpfulness,
symbiotic merging, or neutral human relationships.
Bryant-Tuckett, R.M, (1981). The effects of subliminal merging stimuli on the academic performance of emotionally handicapped students. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (12-B Pt. 1), p. 4654. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Rose Bryant-Tuckett examined the effects of subliminal symbiotic gratification stimulation on the academic performance of emotionally disturbed adolescents.
Bryant-Tuckett, R. & Silverman, L.H. (1984). Effects of the subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on the academic performance of emotionally handicapped students. Free School District, Lakeside-Ramapo Union, Spring Valley NY. Journal of Counseling Psychology 31 (3), pp 295-305. ISSN: 0022-0167.
Rose-Marie Bryant-Tuckett and Lloyd Silverman studied the effects of the subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on the academic performance of emotionally disturbed adolescents.
The subjects were divided into experimental and control groups matched for age, IQ, and reading ability. Each group was further divided to receive only words or words with a picture.
Both groups were seen five times a week for six weeks for tachistoscopic
exposures of subliminal stimulus.
The control group was exposed to the neutral stimulus "People are
walking" without a picture and with a picture of two bland-looking
Budzynski, T. (1977). Tuning in on the twilight zone. Psychology Today. 11 (3), pp 38-44.
Thomas Budzynski discusses the use of subliminal messages in his clinical
By using positive subliminal affirmations, his clients gain self-esteem and assertiveness.
Burkham, R. (1982). The effect of subliminal presentation of two gratifying fantasies on female depressives. St. Louis University Dissertation Abstracts International 42, (10-B), 4183. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Robert Burkham replicated Nissenfield's study (1979) and extended it. Nissenfield had reported that procedures intended to elicit unconscious gratifying symbiotic fantasies reduced depressive symptoms among depressed female psychiatric patients.
This study examined the impact of presumed gratifying rapprochement fantasies in reducing depressive symptoms.
Subjects were subliminally presented with a neutral control stimulus, a symbiotic stimulus and a rapprochement stimulus.
The effect of presenting these three stimuli was measured by change scores on seven dependent variables which measured self-reported and experimenter-rated cognitions and effects, self-esteem, psychomotor retardation, as facets of depression, and Silverman's measure of pathological non-verbal behavior.
The subjects manifested no differential response to the stimuli whatsoever. The failure to replicate Nissenfield's results was attributed largely to Nissenfield's unjustifiable data analysis strategy. The possibility of an experimenter effect which either enables or hinders subliminal psychodynamic activation was also considered.
Byrne, D. (1959). The effect of subliminal food stimulus on verbal responses, Journal of Applied Psychology, 43 (4), pp 249-252.
In this article Byrne discusses earlier studies on the effects of subliminal
Byrne,. W. (1979), Let's try harder - and smarter -
to solve the problems posed by low achievers Training, 16 (9), p. 122.
Amongst the possible solutions posed for dealing with poor management, is the use of subliminal messages geared to reinforcing good management concepts.
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